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The MMWR is embargoed until Thursday, 12 PM EST.
Synopsis for April 2, 2004
Impact of Primary Laws on Adult Use of Safety Belts ― United States, 2002
CDC recommends primary enforcement safety belt laws as an effective
way to increase the use of safety beltsthe best protection against serious
injury or death in a crash.
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among persons aged one to 34 years in the United States. Safety belt use ranges from 52% to 92% in the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC). This study examined safety belt use in the United States and found that belt use averaged 85% in states with primary enforcement safety belt laws compared with 74% in states with secondary laws. Primary laws allow police officers to ticket motorists solely for being unbelted. Safety belts are the best protection against serious injury or death in a crash. CDC recommends primary enforcement safety belt laws as an effective strategy to increase belt use. Currently, 20 states and DC have primary laws in place.
Work-Related Roadway Crashes ― United States, 1992-2002
Many strategies known to be effective in reducing motor
vehicle-related crashes and injuries in the general public can also work in
occupational settings. Through proactive driver and vehicle safety policies,
employers can play a key role in workplace crash and injury prevention.
During 19922001, roadway crashes were the leading cause of occupational fatalities in the U.S., accounting for an annual average of 1,300 civilian worker deaths (22% of the total). Annual numbers of work-related roadway deaths increased over the decade, and rates showed little change. Among occupations, transportation workers had the highest number and rate of roadway fatalities over the decade (6,212 [11.1 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers]). Employers can directly influence employees driving behavior through the employer-employee relationship. Employers demonstrate their commitment to safe driving and safe vehicles through the policies they set and the vehicles they furnish. Health and safety professionals can also contribute to prevention of occupational crashes by promoting safe driving practices among workers and by promoting public awareness of occupational driving issues.
Update: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in U.S. Military Personnel Southwest/Central Asia, 2002-2004
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a treatable infectious disease. Clinicians should consider the possibility of CL in military personnel with persistent skin sores who were deployed to Southwest/Central Asia or persons who traveled to or live in who were in areas where this disease is endemic.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Persons who travel to, or live in, areas of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe are at-risk for developing the disease. This report provides an update about CL cases among 361 U.S. military personnel deployed during 2002-2004 to Afghanistan, Iraq, or Kuwait. The cases were evaluated and treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
Two Cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis in U.S. Military Personnel ― Afghanistan, 2002-2004
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), although potentially fatal, is a treatable infectious disease Clinicians should consider the possibility of VL in persons who have been in areas where this disease is endemic and who have clinical manifestations suggestive of this diagnosis.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Persons who travel to, or live in, areas of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe are at-risk for developing the disease. WHO estimates that approx. 500,000 new cases of VL, a potentially life threatening disease, occur each year with more than 90 percent of the world's cases acquired in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil. This report provides preliminary information about two cases of VL that were diagnosed in U.S. military personnel deployed to Afghanistan. The cases were evaluated and treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
This page last reviewed April 1, 2004
Disease Control and Prevention