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  Press Summaries

MMWR
June 25, 1999

MMWR articles are embargoed until 4 p.m. Eastern time on Thursday.


MMWR Synopsis
  1. HIV Tests Among Persons Using Anonymous or Confidential HIV Counseling and Voluntary Testing in Federally Funded Testing Sites United States, 1995-1997
  2. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication African Region, 1998 to April 1999
  3. Renal Adverse Events Associated with Immune Globulin Intravenous Therapy United States, 1985-1998
  4. Update: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome United States, 1999

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MMWR

Synopsis June 25, 1999

HIV Tests Among Persons Using Anonymous or Confidential HIV Counseling and Voluntary Testing in Federally Funded Testing Sites United States, 1995-1997
The latest testing data reaffirm the need for both anonymous and confidential HIV testing options.

PRESS CONTACT:
Office of Communication
CDC, National Center for HIV, STD & TB Prevention
(404) 639-8895
To make HIV testing as accessible as possible, CDC strongly supports the availability of both anonymous and confidential testing options. This analysis of data on over 7 million HIV tests performed between 1995 and 1997 finds a high prevalence of HIV in both anonymous counseling and testing sites (2%) and confidential medical and other settings (1.5% in STD clinics, 2.1% in community health centers, 2.4% in drug treatment centers, and 3.5% in prisons), with each type of testing reaching unique populations at risk. For example, Asian Pacific Islander and white men who have sex with men (MSM) were much more likely to choose anonymous testing than any other risk groups (71.6% and 61.9% respectively). By contrast, black MSM were much more likely to be tested in confidential settings (67.5%). Making both options available is critical to ensure that all populations at risk have access to testing and early treatment and prevention services.

  Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication African Region, 1998 to April 1999
During the past year, an acceleration in efforts to achieve polio eradication has occurred in Africa but it remains one of the global reservoirs for wild poliovirus transmission.
PRESS CONTACT:
Peter Strebel, M.D.
CDC, National Immunization Program
(404) 639-8252
In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted the goal of global eradication of polio to be achieved by the year 2000. To achieve this goal, the African Region (AFRO) of the World Health Organization has accelerated polio eradication strategies, but the region remains one of the global reservoirs for wild poliovirus transmission. This report summarizes progress toward polio eradication from 1998 through April 1999 in AFR0, highlights supplementary vaccination activities and acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, and describes plans for program acceleration to meet the 2000 global eradication target.

  Renal Adverse Events Associated with Immune Globulin Intravenous Therapy United States, 1985-1998
Administration of immune globulin intravenous (IGIV) has been associated with renal adverse events (RAE).
PRESS CONTACT:
Farah Parvez, M.D.
CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases
(404) 639-6413
From June 1985 to November 1998, the Food and Drug Administration received 120 worldwide reports of RAEs following IGIV administration. Eighty-eight reports were from the United States. The median age of case-patients was 60.5 years and 59% had at least one underlying condition associated with acute renal failure. Seventy-nine (90%) case-patients received sucrose-containing IGIV products prior to RAE development. Thirteen (15%) case-patients died despite therapy. Surveillance for IGIV-associated RAEs is passive and thus may underestimate the true magnitude of IGIV-associated RAEs. All patients receiving IGIV should be monitored carefully for RAE. IGIV should be used judiciously and alternatives used when appropriate.

  Update: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome United States, 1999
The most effective way to decrease the risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is to limit exposure to rodents and their excreta.
PRESS CONTACT:
James Mills, Ph.D.
CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases
(404) 639-1396
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rodent-borne viral disease characterized by severe pulmonary illness and a case-fatality rate of 43 percent. The deer mouse is the predominant carrier of hantavirus. Risk for human disease is proportional to the frequency with which persons come into contact with infectious rodents. An increase in both rodent population densities and hantavirus infection among rodents in the southwestern states, which may have been caused by increased rainfall last year, has resulted in an increase in cases of HPS in 1999. Measures to prevent HPS include eliminating rodent harborage, controlling rodent populations, properly cleaning up rodent infestation and avoiding rodents in outdoor settings. Physicians are strongly encouraged to become familiar with the signs and symptoms of HPS and report any cases to state health departments or CDC.

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