Clinical Guidance for Healthcare Providers Caring for Pregnant Women
Special Notice – March 13, 2017
CDC provides an update on potential increased risk of Zika virus exposure from semen
Because of Zika virus transmission in Miami-Dade County, FL, evidence concerning the persistence of Zika virus in semen1, ongoing concern about undiagnosed asymptomatic infections, challenges associated with defining sources of exposure, and concern that male residents of Broward and Palm Beach counties may have traveled to areas in Miami-Dade County2, there is a small potential risk of Zika virus transmission associated with exposure to semen from male residents in the Florida tri-county area of Miami Dade, Palm Beach, and Broward counties since June 15, 2016 (the start date for the first CDC health advisory3).
In consultation with their healthcare providers, women and their partners should take this potential risk into consideration when trying to conceive. Additionally, healthcare providers should counsel pregnant women who might be exposed to semen from men potentially infected with Zika virus about this risk and consult existing CDC guidance for evaluating and caring for them.
CDC recommends that pregnant women should not travel to areas with Zika virus infection risk. This includes all areas with documented or likely Zika virus transmission (see WHO categories for more information). If a pregnant woman must travel to one of these areas, she should be counseled to strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites and prevent sexual transmission during and after the trip.
- Symptomatic pregnant women with possible Zika exposure should be tested for Zika virus infection. Possible Zika exposure includes people who live in or have recently traveled to an area with documented or likely Zika virus transmission, or who have had sex without a condom with a partner (male or female) who lives in or has traveled to an area with Zika virus infection risk.
- Testing recommendations for asymptomatic pregnant women with possible Zika exposure differ depending on where they traveled.
- HAN Advisory: CDC Updates Guidance for Pregnant Women and Women and Men of Reproductive Age for Zika Virus Infection Related to the Ongoing Investigation of Local Mosquito-borne Zika Virus Transmission in Miami-Dade County, Florida (October 19, 2016)
- HAN Advisory: CDC Guidance for Travel and Testing of Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age for Zika Virus Infection Related to the Investigation for Local Mosquito-borne Zika Virus Transmission in Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida (HAN, Aug. 1, 2016)
- UPDATE: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, July 2016 (MMWR, Jul. 25, 2016)
- Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States, 2016 (MMWR, Mar. 25, 2016)
- Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States, 2016 (MMWR, Feb. 5, 2016)
- Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak—United States, 2016 (MMWR, Jan. 22, 2016)
- Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks (EID, May 2016)
- Zika virus and birth defects – Reviewing the evidence for causality (NEJM, 2016)
- Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions — United States, 2016 (MMWR, March 25, 2016)
- Zika Virus Infection Among US Pregnant Travelers – August 2015-February 2016 (MMWR, Mar. 4, 2016)
- HAN Advisory: Recognizing, Managing, and Reporting Zika Virus Infections in Travelers Returning from Central America, South America, the Caribbean, and Mexico (HAN, Jan. 15, 2016)
Questions & Answers
- Zika and Pregnancy
- Pregnant Travelers who Live in an Area Without Risk of Zika
- Pregnant Women Residing in Areas with Active Zika Virus Transmission
- Pregnant Women Living Near the US-Mexico Border
- Prenatal Diagnosis of Microcephaly
- Testing Pregnant Women
- Postnatal Management of Infants Born to Pregnant Women with Laboratory Evidence of Confirmed or Probable Zika Virus Infection
1Zika virus RNA can persist in semen for up to 6 months and therefore any men with any travel to Miami-Dade County could transmit the virus through semen (sexually or donated) for 6 months after onset of infection. Paz-Bailey G, Rosenberg ES, Doyle K, Munoz-Jordan J, Santiago GA, Klein L, Perez-Padilla J, Medina FA, Waterman SH, Gubern CG, Alvarado LI, Sharp TM. Persistence of Zika Virus in Body Fluids - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2017; Feb 14. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1613108. [Epub ahead of print]
2People move fluidly and regularly between Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach to live, work, attend school, shop, socialize, and seek medical care. These individuals may not regard these activities as travel.
3CDC Guidance for Travel and Testing of Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age for Zika Virus Infection Related to the Investigation for Local Mosquito-borne Zika Virus Transmission in Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Floridahttps://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00393.asp
- Page last reviewed: March 27, 2017
- Page last updated: March 27, 2017
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