Health Outcomes | Obesity Evaluation Measures

Health outcomes measures for obesity prevention and control1-9

The effectiveness of obesity prevention and control programs depends on the intensity of program effort and the use of multiple interventions. A rule of thumb is that the more programs implemented together as a package or campaign, the more successful the interventions will be.

Baseline

  • Determine levels of employee overweight/obesity from employee health survey or health risk appraisal. Examples include:
    • Determine percent of employees who are overweight or obese using the body mass index (BMI)
    • If feasible, conduct biometric screening of overweight/obesity for employees. Test examples include bioelectrical impedance testing or anthropometric measurement with calipers  
    • Physical activity and nutrition workplace programs play a key part in addressing obesity. For in-depth discussion of the evaluation of employee physical activity and nutrition levels, see their evaluation descriptions
  • Determine baseline percentage of employees with health conditions affected by overweight/obesity including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol
    • The key health concern of obesity is that overweight and obesity increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol which in turn increase the rates of heart attack and stroke. For in-depth discussion of the evaluation of interventions for these risk factors and diseases, see their evaluation descriptions
  • •Determine employee knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about overweight/obesity
    • Evaluate employee’s current knowledge of the health benefits of physical activity, good nutrition, and maintaining a healthy weight
    • Measure employee’s knowledge of current physical activityexternal icon and nutritionexternal icon guidelines
    • Measure employee’s knowledge of current overweight/obesity guidelines
    • Determine the number of employees who report they want to lose weight
    • Assess employee awareness of existing workplace overweight/obesity programs, policies and benefits
  • Number of employees currently screened and referred for and receiving clinical obesity evaluation and treatment including counseling, weight loss medications and bariatric surgery (if covered)

Process

  • Periodic repeat of baseline measures

Outcome

  • Assess changes in employee overweight/obesity such as:
    • Changes in the percentage of employees who are overweight/obese
    • Changes in the percentage of employees reaching physical activity and dietary guidelines
  • Assess changes in health conditions affected by overweight/obesity including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol
    • Compare changes of program participants before education and other programs are initiated and after operation of these programs
  • Assess changes in employee knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about overweight/obesity ◦Evaluate changes in employee’s knowledge of the health benefits of physical activity, good nutrition, and maintaining a healthy weight
    • Measure changes in employee’s knowledge of current physical activity and nutrition guidelines
    • Measure changes in employee’s knowledge of current overweight/obesity guidelines
    • Determine changes in the number of employees who report they want to lose weight
    • Assess changes in employee awareness of workplace overweight/obesity programs, policies, and benefits
  • Assess changes in the number of employees receiving clinical obesity services (if covered)
References

1.  Campbell KP, Lanza A, Dixon R, Chattopadhyay S, Molinari N, Finch RA, editors. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: Moving Science into Coverage. Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health; 2006.

2.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for program evaluation in public health. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1999;48(No. RR-11): 1-40.

3.  Matson Koffman DM, Lanza A, Campbell KP. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: A tool to improve health care coverage for prevention. Preventing Chronic Disease, April 2008; 5(2).

4.  Goetzel RZ, Ozminkowski RJ. Program evaluation. In: O’Donnell MP, editor. Health promotion in the workplace, 3rd edition. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning; 2002. p 116-165.

5.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2nd ed. With Understanding and Improving Health and Objectives for Improving Health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000

6.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2005. 6th Edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 2005. Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/pdf/DGA2005.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 3.9MB]external icon.

7.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2008. U.S. Government Printing Office, October 2008. Available from: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 8.4MB]external icon.

8.  Physical activity for a healthy weight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; [updated 2008 Jun 20; cited 2008 Aug 26]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/healthyweight/physical_activity/

9.  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in cooperation with The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report. Bethesda (MD): 1998: NIH Publication No. 98-4083. National Institutes of Health.