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2010s: CDC/ATSDR Contributions to Women’s Health

Below is a sample of contributions CDC and ATSDR have made in women’s health during the 2010s.

2017

Making Our Health a Priority in Honor of National Cancer Survivors Day
Breast cancer survivor Pamela Bryant says, “Having cancer forced me to understand the importance of making my health a priority, and I challenge each of you to do the same.”

Strategies for Preventing HIV Infection Among HIV-Uninfected Women Attempting Conception with HIV-Infected Men – United States
This report reviews laboratory and epidemiologic information regarding the prevention of HIV transmission for HIV-discordant couples, in which the male is HIV-infected and the female is HIV-uninfected, who would like to attempt conception.

Breastfeeding Among African American Women
Read Monique’s story and learn about breastfeeding among African American women.

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Homicides of Adult Women and the Role of Intimate Partner Violence – United States, 2003-2014
To inform homicide and intimate partner violence prevention efforts, CDC analyzed homicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System among 10,018 women aged ≥18 years in 18 states during 2003-2014.

New Report on Pregnancy-Related Deaths in the United States
In a new report in Obstetrics and Gynecology, CDC scientists provide the most recent national information on pregnancy-related deaths using 2011-2013 data from the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System.

Racial and Geographic Differences in Breastfeeding – United States, 2011-2015
CDC analyzed 2011-2015 National Immunization Survey data for children born during 2010-2013 to describe breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity through 6 months and duration at 12 months among black and white infants.

Screening for Syphilis and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnant Women – Guam, 2014
This study evaluated the prevalence of screening for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and examined correlates of inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam.

Giving It Our Best Shot? Human Papillomavirus and Hepatitis B Virus Immunization Among Refugees, Massachusetts, 2011-2013
This study examined human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus immunization rates among 2,269 refugees aged 9 to 26 years who resettled in Massachusetts from 2011 through 2013.

Trends in Breastfeeding Among Infants Enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children – New York, 2002-2015
To assess breastfeeding trends among New York WIC infants, indicators for measuring breastfeeding practices reported by the New York Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System during 2002-2015 were examined.

Increase Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas with AMIGAS
AMIGAS is a bilingual educational outreach intervention designed to help promotoras (community health workers) and other lay health educators increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanics who have rarely or never had a Pap test. Updated materials are now available for download.

Surveillance of high-grade cervical cancer precursors (CIN III/AIS) in four population-based cancer registries, United States, 2009-2012
This report analyzes population-based rates of high-grade cervical cancer precursor lesions using data from four central cancer registries (diagnosis years 2009-2012 from Louisiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and diagnosis years 2011-2012 from Los Angeles) by age, race, and histology.

Seven Things You May Not Know about Women’s Health
You may be surprised to learn about some health issues that affect millions of women or girls each year. Learn about some of them and what you can do.

HIV Testing Among Transgender Women and Men – 27 States and Guam, 2014-2015
CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to describe HIV testing among transgender women and men and two cisgender comparison groups in 27 states and Guam.

Sleep Duration and Quality Among Women Aged 40-59, by Menopausal Status
This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among non-pregnant women aged 40-59 by menopausal status.

Antidepressant Use Among Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2011-2014
This Data Brief provides the most recent estimates of antidepressant use in the U.S. noninstitutionalized population, including prevalence of use by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and length of use. Overall and in each age group, females were about twice as likely as males to take antidepressant medication.

I Did Everything to Avoid Cancer…And It Still Got Me
September is Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Month. Terri, an ovarian cancer survivor, tells her story in a new blog.

BRCA Genetic Testing and Receipt of Preventive Interventions Among Women Aged 18-64 Years with Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas – United States, 2009-2014
Genetic testing for breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene mutations can identify women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer, and the results can be used to select preventive interventions and guide treatment. Medical claims data were used to estimate rates of BRCA testing and receipt of preventive interventions after BRCA testing among women aged 18-64 years with employer-sponsored health insurance in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of the United States, nationally and regionally.

Increasing Awareness of Gynecologic Cancer Risks and Symptoms among Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Women in the US-Associated Pacific Island Jurisdictions
In this study, Inside Knowledge educational materials were obtained from the CDC website and used in facilitated educational sessions. Sessions were planned according to leading health education theories, and were implemented and led by local Yap public health practitioners. Pre- and post-session surveys were used to assess changes in gynecologic cancer awareness, confidence and behavioral intentions related to prevention/early detection for gynecologic cancer.

Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection
CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus acquisition among women using hormonal contraception. After careful review, CDC adopted the updated WHO guidance for inclusion in the U.S. MEC guidance.

Trends in Cervical Cancer Screening in Title X-Funded Health Centers – United States, 2005-2015
In this report, aggregated administrative data from the Title X Family Planning Program were used to calculate the percentage of female clients served in Title X-funded health centers who received a Papanicolaou (Pap) test during 2005-2015.

STDs at Record High, Indicating Urgent Need for Prevention
The majority of these new diagnoses (1.6 million) were cases of chlamydia. There were also 470,000 gonorrhea cases and almost 28,000 cases of primary and secondary syphilis – the most infectious stages of the disease. While all three of these STDs can be cured with antibiotics, if left undiagnosed and untreated, they can have serious health consequences, including infertility, life-threatening ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth in infants, and increased risk for HIV transmission.

Prevent Domestic Violence in Your Community
The CDC is committed to ensuring that all Americans, especially those at risk for intimate partner violence, live to their fullest potential. The goal is to stop IPV before it begins.

New Study Shows Tdap Vaccination During Pregnancy Can Prevent Whooping Cough in Babies
This study used data from 2011 through 2014 on babies younger than two months from six states. It found that mothers whose babies had whooping cough were less likely to have received Tdap during pregnancy.

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women – United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season
To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during March 28-April 7, 2017.

Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity – United States, 2005-2014
Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site.

Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring
This study examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring and used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4.

Tackling Breast Cancer: The Right Treatment for the Right Woman at the Right Time
The CDC Division of Cancer Prevention and Control’s Jacqueline W. Miller, MD, FACS has written a new blog post showing that breast cancer is different in every woman and needs to be treated accordingly.

Receipt of Selected Preventive Health Services for Women and Men of Reproductive Age – United States, 2011-2013
Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs published in 2014 established standards for providing a core set of preventive health services for women and men aged 15-44 years. This report provides baseline estimates of the use of these recommended preventive health services during 2011-2013 among women and men of reproductive age.

Increased Risk for Mother-to-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Among Medicaid Recipients, Wisconsin, 2011-2015
To estimate the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women and the frequency of confirmed HCV infection in their infants, maternal name and date of birth from HCV reports in the Wisconsin Electronic Disease Surveillance System were linked to Wisconsin Medicaid data for 2011-2015 births.

CDC Releases 2015 Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Fertility Clinic Success Rates
The interactive web display of ART success rates has been updated to reflect the latest data.

Prevalence of HPV in Adults Aged 18-69: United States, 2011-2014
This report provides the most recent national estimates of oral HPV prevalence among adults aged 18-69 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014, as well as prevalence of genital HPV among adults aged 18-59 from NHANES 2013-2014.

Help for Infertility
For many couples, having a child is a shared dream. Fertility problems can shatter that dream. This podcast discusses infertility in the United States.

Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Women Giving Birth – Tennessee and United States, 2009-2014
Recent surveillance data showed increased rates of HCV infection among adolescents and adults who are predominantly white, live in nonurban areas, and have a history of injection drug use.* U.S. birth certificate data were used to analyze trends and geographic variations in rates of HCV infection among women giving birth during 2009-2014.

Trends in Repeat Births and Use of Postpartum Contraception Among Teens – United States, 2004-2015
To expand upon prior research assessing patterns and trends in repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens with a recent live birth (i.e., 2-6 months after delivery) (3), CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System natality files (2004 and 2015) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS; 2004-2013).

Prevalence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Sexually Experienced Women of Reproductive Age – United States, 2013-2014
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum. CDC assessed the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle.

Lower Your Risk for the Number 1 Killer of Women
Learn about heart disease in women and what you can do to keep a healthy heart.

Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance – United States, 2014
Women who undergo assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures such as in vitro fertilization are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. This report provides state-specific information on ART procedures performed in 2014 and compares ART birth outcomes that occurred in 2014 (resulting from procedures performed in 2013 and 2014) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2014.

The Association of Marital Status and Offers of Employer-based Health Insurance for Employed Women Aged 27-64: United States, 2014-2015
In 2015, women were less likely than men to have been insured through their own employer and more likely to have been covered as a dependent. This report describes the association of marital status and the presence of employer-based health insurance offers among employed women in the United States.

2016

Mean Age of Mothers is on the Rise: United States, 2000-2014
The mean age of mothers has increased from 2000 to 2014 for all birth orders, with age at first birth having the largest increase, up from 24.9 years in 2000 to 26.3 years in 2014.

QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Females Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity – National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1991 and 2014
From 1991 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for the United States.

Antidepressant Prescription Claims Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Private Employer-Sponsored Insurance – United States 2008-2013
Approximately 15.4% of this convenience sample of reproductive-aged women with private employer-sponsored insurance filled a prescription for an antidepressant during 2008-2013.

Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years – United States, 2009-2011
Although the maternal and child health advantages associated with longer duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding are well documented, this study determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, prevalence of any and exclusive breastfeeding was low.

Protect Your Unborn Baby or Newborn from Infection
If you’re pregnant or planning a pregnancy, there are simple steps you can take to protect your unborn baby or newborn from infections that cause serious health problems.

Vital Signs: Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies – United States, 2011-2013
Data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth found that during a 1-month period, approximately 3.3 million women in the United States were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy.

Trends in Attitudes About Marriage, Childbearing, and Sexual Behavior: United States, 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2013
From 2002 to 2011-2013, there was an increase in the percentages of men and women who agreed with premarital cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, the right for gay and lesbian adults to adopt children, same-sex sexual relations, and premarital sex for those aged 18.

QuickStats: Difference in Life Expectancy Between Females and Males at Birth and at Age 65 Years – National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2014
Females born in 2014 can expect to live 4.8 years longer than males born in the same year. This difference in life expectancy between females and males has not changed since 2010, but decreased from 5.4 years in 2000 and 7.0 years in 1990.

Vital Signs: Preparing for Local Mosquito-Borne Transmission of Zika Virus – United States, 2016
Widespread Zika virus transmission in the Region of the Americas has heightened the urgency of preparing for the possibility of expansion of mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus during the 2016 mosquito season.

Patterns in Zika Virus Testing and Infection, by Report of Symptoms and Pregnancy Status – United States, January 3-March 5, 2016
During January 3-March 5, 2016, Zika virus testing was performed in the United States for 4,534 people who traveled to or moved from areas with active Zika virus transmission; 3,335 (73.6%) were pregnant women. Among 1,541 people who received testing and reported symptoms, 182 (11.8%) had confirmed Zika virus infection.

Short Interpregnancy Intervals in 2014: Differences by Maternal Demographic Characteristics
Nearly 29.0% of U.S. mothers who had a second or higher-order birth in 2014 had a short interpregnancy interval of less than 18 months.

Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years – United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014
Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall (from 41.1 per 1,000 to 24.2 per 1,000). The largest decline occurred among Hispanics (51%, from 77.4 to 38.0), followed by blacks (44%, from 61.9 to 34.9), and then whites (35%, from 26.7 to 17.3).

Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid – New York, 2008-2013
The average proportion of women of reproductive age who received prescriptions for opioids during 2008-2013 was 20.0%, ranging from a low of 18.7% in 2008 to a high of 20.9% in 2011.

Maternal Depression
As many as 1 in 9 women experience depression before, during, or after pregnancy. Learn about symptoms of depression and treatment options.

QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates for Females and Males, by Method – National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014
From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males.

Overwhelmed by Too Much Health Advice? Cheat Sheet for Women’s Cancer Screenings and Good Health
CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson provides a “cheat sheet” for women’s cancer screenings in this blog post.

QuickStats: Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy – 46 States and the District of Columbia, 2014
In 2014, 20.6% of pregnant women who smoked cigarettes during the first or second trimester, in a reporting area of 46 states and the District of Columbia, stopped smoking during pregnancy.

U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry
To understand more about Zika virus infection, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry and is collaborating with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to collect information about pregnancy and infant outcomes following laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016
The 2016 U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (U.S. SPR) addresses common issues regarding initiation and use of specific contraceptive methods.

Increases in Medically Attended Nonfatal Injury Episodes Among Females in the United States
From 2005-2008 to 2011-2014, the nonfatal injury rate increased for females but remained unchanged for males. From 2005-2008 to 2011-2014, the nonfatal injury rate increased significantly for women aged 45-64 and for non-Hispanic white females.

QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death – United States, 1999 and 2014
The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline).

Increased Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Detection in Women of Childbearing Age and Potential Risk for Vertical Transmission – United States and Kentucky, 2011-2014
During 2011-2014, the national rate of HCV detection among women of childbearing age served by Quest increased 22%, from 139 to 169 per 100,000, and the rate of HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years served by Quest increased 14%, from 310 to 353 per 100,000.

Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers – United States, 2008-2012
Overall, an average of 38,793 HPV-associated cancers (11.7 per 100,000 persons) were diagnosed annually, including 23,000 (13.5) among females and 15,793 (9.7) among males.

Talking to Your Family About Your BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation
A person with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is more likely to get breast, ovarian, and other cancers. This content describes how to talk to your family if you are a woman with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

Pregnancy and Whooping Cough
CDC recommends pregnant women get the whooping cough vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of each pregnancy. The goal is to give babies some short-term protection against whooping cough in early life.

Seven Things You May Not Know about Women’s Health
Lesser-known conditions and diseases affect the health or safety of millions of women or girls each year. Learn about some of them and what you can do.

CDC’s Inside Knowledge Campaign Kicks Off Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Month with Targeted Provider Outreach
The Inside Knowledge campaign raises awareness of the five main types of gynecologic cancer: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar.

New Training on E-Cigarettes and Pregnancy for Health Professionals
E-Cigarettes and Pregnancy is a free, online interactive presentation on electronic nicotine delivery systems and their potential health effects during and after pregnancy, and discusses effective tobacco cessation treatments.

CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS)
As of May 2016, PRAMS is funded in 51 sites and covers 83% of all live births in the United States. A full list of participating PRAMS states, territories, and tribes are identified on the site.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Awareness
September is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Awareness Month. Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which are physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities that last a lifetime.

Patterns and Trends in Age-Specific Black-White Differences in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality – United States, 1999-2014
This report examines age-specific black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence during 1999-2013 and mortality during 2000-2014 in the United States using data from United States Cancer Statistics.

Breast Cancer in Young Women
Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older, but breast cancer also affects younger women. About 10% of all new cases of breast cancer in the United States are found in women younger than 45 years of age. Learn what young women can to do lower the risk.

Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates – United States, 2007 and 2014
In this report, CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups.

Abortion Surveillance – United States, 2013
This reports examines 2013 data that was received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013.

Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015
Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties.

CDC Launches New HIV Treatment Works Materials Featuring Transgender Women
CDC’s Act Against AIDS Initiative launched new HIV Treatment Works materials, featuring transgender women of color sharing their compelling stories about living well with HIV.

CDC Releases ART Summary Data and Resources
CDC has updated the data on the Assisted Reproductive Technology website, including the interactive map of clinic success rates and summary report figures for 2014.

Bleeding Disorders in Women
Women with excessive bleeding may experience heavy, hard-to-stop bleeding, especially during or after surgery, dental procedures, and childbirth. Learn about tools that can help determine bleeding disorder risk.

2015

Current Contraceptive Use Among Women Aged 15–44 in the United States, 2011–2013
Among women currently using contraception, the most commonly used methods were the pill (25.9%, or 9.7 million women), female sterilization (25.1%, or 9.4 million women), the male condom (15.3%, or 5.8 million women), and long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)—intrauterine devices or contraceptive implants (11.6%, or 4.4 million women).

Gestational Weight Gain — United States, 2012 and 2013
The overall prevalence of appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) was 32.1%, whereas the prevalence of inadequate GWG was 20.4% and the prevalence of excessive GWG was 47.5%.

Vital Signs: Improvements in Maternity Care Policies and Practices That Support Breastfeeding — United States, 2007–2013
Many U.S. mothers do not continue breastfeeding as long as they would like. This report summarizes data from 2007 (baseline), 2009, 2011, and 2013 to describe trends in the prevalence of facilities using maternity care policies and practices that are consistent with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding.

Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age — United States, 2011–2013
During 2011–2013, one in 10 pregnant women reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days and one in 33 reported binge drinking; similar to non-pregnant women, about one third of pregnant women who consume alcohol engage in binge drinking.

Percentage of Adults Aged 65 and Over With Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine: United States, 2005–2010
During 2005–2010, 16.2% of adults aged 65 and over had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine or femur neck. The age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis at either skeletal site was higher among women (24.8%) than men (5.6%).

Vital Signs: Demographic and Substance Use Trends Among Heroin Users — United States, 2002–2013
Heroin use and overdose deaths have increased significantly in the United States. The greatest increases in heroin use occurred in demographic groups that historically have had lower rates: doubling among women and more than doubling among non-Hispanic whites. The rate in 2011–2013 for men was 3.6 per 1,000 compared with 1.6 per 1,000 for women

Identifying Tools to Improve Clinical Preventive Services for Women with Disabilities
CDC and the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs developed a toolbox for health professionals to facilitate and deliver clinical preventive services among the more than 28 million women of childbearing age and beyond living with disabilities.

Bring Your Brave Campaign
The Bring Your Brave campaign provides information about breast cancer to women younger than age 45 by sharing real stories about young women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015
These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection.

Patterns of Health Insurance Coverage Around the Time of Pregnancy Among Women with Live-Born Infants — Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 29 States, 2009
This report summarizes data from 29 states that conducted PRAMS in 2009. Data on the prevalence of health insurance coverage stability (stable coverage, unstable coverage, and uninsured) the month before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at the time of delivery are reported by state and selected maternal characteristics.

Student Indoor Tanning
According to some research, tanning salons tend to exist in areas with a greater number of girls and women aged 15-29 years and are particularly concentrated near colleges. Those who begin indoor tanning during adolescence or early adulthood have a higher risk of getting melanoma.

Possible Sexual Transmission of Ebola Virus — Liberia, 2015
Based on information gathered in this investigation, CDC now recommends that contact with semen from male Ebola survivors be avoided until more information regarding the duration and infectiousness of viral shedding in body fluids is known. If male survivors have sex, a condom should be used correctly and consistently every time.

HPV in Communities of Color and How It Affects Women of Color
Every year, HPV cancers affect around 17,600 women. About 4,000 women annually die from cervical cancer, with three times more Black women dying than White women in the same age group. This disease is preventable, so no women should die of cervical cancer.

Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women
The researchers used a deterministic heterosexual transmission model to explore the potential health and economic outcomes of a hypothetical chlamydia vaccine focusing on vaccination programs for 14-year-old girls and 15–24-year-old women in the United States

Maternal Morbidity for Vaginal and Cesarean Deliveries, According to Previous Cesarean History: New Data From the Birth Certificate, 2013
Rates of maternal morbidity were higher for cesarean than vaginal deliveries—rates of transfusion (525.1 per 100,000) and ICU admission (383.1) were highest for primary cesarean deliveries, while rates of ruptured uterus (88.9) and unplanned hysterectomy (143.1) were highest for repeat cesarean deliveries.

Preventing Teen Pregnancy: A Key Role for Health Care Providers
LARC is safe to use, does not require taking a pill each day or doing something each time before having sex, and can prevent pregnancy for 3 to 10 years, depending on the method. Less than 1% of LARC users would become pregnant during the first year of use.

Stressful Life Events Experienced by Women in the Year Before Their Infants’ Births — United States, 2000–2010
Younger, less educated, unmarried, and Medicaid-covered women had the highest prevalence of stressful life events. Public health practitioners and clinicians can use the information on trends and risk factors for SLEs to determine the likelihood that pregnant women might benefit from screening for stressors during pregnancy.

Fact Sheets on Women, Smoking, and Reproductive Health
Numerous fact sheets are now available and provide information taken from Surgeon General’s Reports about smoking. Two fact sheets address smoking risks for women: Women and Smoking, and Smoking and Reproduction.

Updated Estimates of Neural Tube Defects Prevented by Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification — United States, 1995–2011
The updated estimate of approximately 1,300 NTD-affected births averted annually during the post-fortification period is slightly higher than the previously published estimate. Mandatory folic acid fortification remains an effective public health policy intervention.

Opioid Prescription Claims Among Women of Reproductive Age — United States, 2008–2012
Opioid-containing medications are widely prescribed among reproductive-aged women with either private insurance or Medicaid, with approximately one fourth of privately insured and over one third of Medicaid-enrolled women filling a prescription for an opioid each year during 2008–2012.

2014

Guidance for Screening and Caring for Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease for Healthcare Providers in U.S. Hospitals
Guidance on how to screen pregnant women for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) and how to care for pregnant women with known or suspected Ebola, including considerations for pregnant healthcare workers.

Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians – Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
A web-based training course designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease.

Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Screening – United States, 2007-2012
In 2012, the percentage of women who had not been screened for cervical cancer in the past 5 years was estimated to be 11.4%.The proportion of inadequately screened women is higher among older women, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives.

ATSDR Study Suggests Women’s Exposures to Contaminated Drinking Water at Camp Lejeune Might Be Associated with Adverse Birth Outcomes
Women who were pregnant and were exposed to the contaminated drinking water between 1968 and 1985 were more likely to have increased risk of pre-term birth or children with forms of fetal growth retardation.

CDC Expands Support for State-Based Perinatal Quality Collaboratives
CDC awarded six states for the State-Based Perinatal Quality Collaboratives (PQCs) Cooperative Agreement. Funding will enhance the capabilities of PQCs to improve perinatal outcomes by improving the quality of perinatal care in their states.

Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization – National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011
This report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins.

Receipt of Reproductive Health Services Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 15–19 Years — National Survey of Family Growth, United States, 2006–2010
Approximately 30% of sexually experienced females aged 15–19 years did not receive contraceptive services, nearly 70% of sexually experienced females aged 15–19 years did not receive recommended STD services, and 74% of sexually experienced males aged 15–19 years did not receive STD services.

Prenatal Breastfeeding Counseling — Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 2010
Multicomponent interventions and supports, including prenatal breastfeeding counseling, are needed to help mothers start and continue breastfeeding.

Racial Disparities in Access to Maternity Care Practices That Support Breastfeeding – United States, 2011
Women living in zip code areas with a higher percentage of blacks might have less access to facilities implementing recommended maternity care practices, which might contribute to lower breastfeeding rates among blacks compared with other racial groups.

National and State Patterns of Teen Births in the United States, 1940–2013
The drop in teen birth rates translates into an estimated 4 million fewer births to teenagers from 1992 through 2012.

Information for Health Care Providers and Public Health Professionals: Preventing Tobacco Use During Pregnancy
This factsheet provides information and resources on the health effects and prevalence of tobacco use during pregnancy and what can be done to help pregnant women be tobacco-free.

We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time
This new national HIV and AIDS awareness campaign is a call to action for the general Hispanic/Latino community to talk about HIV and AIDS, increase HIV and AIDS awareness, and decrease HIV-associated stigma and shame.

Millions of Underserved Women in the US have Benefitted from CDC’s Breast and Cervical Screening Program
More than 4.3 million women with limited access to health care received breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services in the first 20 years of the CDC’s program.

Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013
Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18–64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual.

A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility
This plan highlights the need to better understand and address issues at a population level that contribute to and are caused by infertility in women and men and that may affect the health of the pregnancy.

Know:BRCA
Know:BRCA assesses a young woman’s risk of having a BRCA gene mutation based on her family cancer history.

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States — 2014: Clinical Providers’ Supplement
This supplement to the PHS PrEP Clinical Practice Guidelines is intended to provide additional information that may be useful to clinicians providing PrEP.

Births to Teens Aged 15-17 Years – United States, 1991–2012
Approximately one in four births to a teen aged 15–19 years in 2012 was to a teen aged 15–17 years.

Community-Based Program to Prevent HIV/STD Infection Among Heterosexual Black Women
This report describes successful efforts by SisterLove, Inc., to develop, rigorously evaluate, and demonstrate the efficacy of Healthy Love, an educational workshop, to reduce HIV- and sexually transmitted disease-related risk behaviors among heterosexual black women.

Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs
This report provides recommendations on how to provide family planning services. Such services include contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, helping clients achieve pregnancy, basic infertility services, preconception health services, and sexually transmitted disease services.

Core State Preconception Health Indicators – Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009
This surveillance summary includes data for 39 of 41 indicators: 2009 data for 23 preconception health indicators that were monitored by PRAMS and 16 preconception health indicators that were monitored by BRFSS.

Preventing Maternal Deaths in Africa Blog
Maternal health has improved in most regions of the world, with far fewer women dying during pregnancy and childbirth than 20 years ago. Progress in sub-Saharan Africa, however, has been much slower.

Special Considerations for Prophylaxis for and Treatment of Anthrax in Pregnant and Postpartum Women
This meeting summary provides updated clinical information to health care providers and public health professionals caring for pregnant, postpartum, and lactating women (because of their unique immunology and physiology and the complexities of balancing maternal and fetal risks) in the setting of a bioterrorist event involving anthrax.

Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV – Texas, 2012
This report describes a case of HIV transmission likely by sexual contact between female partners. In this case, other risk factors for HIV transmission were not reported by the newly infected woman, and the viruses infecting the two women were virtually identical.

“The Burning Truth” Initiative Launched
This initiative encourages young people to keep their skin healthy and beautiful for life by protecting themselves from too much exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun and tanning beds.

Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women
This eight-page fact sheet for health professionals and researchers discusses the links between the two issues, study findings, and addresses what’s being done.

Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Victimization by Sexual Orientation
Findings discuss IPV victimization, frequency, severity, patterns, need for services, and impacts.

Rates of Indoor Tanning among Female High School Students Lowest in States with Multiple Restrictions on Youth Access
Female high school students in states with indoor tanning laws, particularly those with parental permission laws and age restrictions, were less likely to engage in indoor tanning compared to students in states without any laws.

Infertility Service Use in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982–2010
Twelve percent of women aged 15–44 in 2006–2010 (7.3 million women), or their husbands or partners, had ever used infertility services.

Primary Cesarean Delivery Rates, by State: Results from the Revised Birth Certificate, 2006–2012
The primary cesarean delivery rate for the 38 states, District of Columbia, and New York City that were using the revised certificate by January 1, 2012, was 21.5%. State-specific rates ranged from 12.5% (Utah) to 26.9%.

50th Anniversary of the First Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health
The report provides a retrospective of the past 50 years of tobacco use prevention and control efforts, and includes newly documented health consequences of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.

2013

Binge Drinking: A Serious, Under-Recognized Problem Among Women and Girls
Binge drinking is reported by one in eight U.S. adult women and one in five high school girls. Women who binge drink tend to do so frequently and with high intensity. Most high school girls who reported current alcohol use also reported binge drinking.

Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant Women – Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012
These updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.

New Tools Available for CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) for Contraceptive Use, 2010
CDC has developed several new tools (summary charts, MEC Wheel, app) to assist health care providers in accessing and using the U.S. MEC.

Show Your Love Campaign
Show Your Love is a national campaign designed to improve the health of women and babies by promoting preconception health and health care. The campaign’s main goal is to increase the number of women who plan their pregnancies and engage in healthy behaviors before becoming pregnant.

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation
This special report is the first of its kind to present comparisons between lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men by gender. Among the findings: Nearly 1 in 3 lesbians (29.4%), 1 in 2 bisexual women (49.3%), and 1 in 4 heterosexual women (23.6%) experienced at least one form of severe physical violence by an intimate partner in her lifetime.

Updated HPV Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians
This web-based training course is designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

New Study Shows HPV Vaccine Helping Lower HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study that looks at the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in girls and women before and after the introduction of the HPV vaccine shows a significant reduction in vaccine-type HPV in U.S. teens.

U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013: Adapted from the World Health Organization Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2nd Edition
The recommendations address a select group of common, yet sometimes controversial or complex, issues regarding initiation and use of specific contraceptive methods. These recommendations are a companion document to the previously published CDC recommendations U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010.

Vital Signs: Overdoses of Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers and Other Drugs Among Women – United States, 1999–2010
In 2010, a total of 15,323 deaths among women were attributed to drug overdose, a rate of 9.8 per 100,000 population. Deaths from opioid pain relievers (OPRs) increased fivefold between 1999 and 2010 for women. Health-care providers should follow guidelines for responsible prescribing, including screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems, when prescribing OPR.

CDC launched or updated several apps for health providers and others:

Trends in Smoking Before, During, and After Pregnancy – Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 40 Sites, 2000–2010
For the majority of sites, smoking prevalence before, during, or after pregnancy did not change over time. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 13.3% in 2000 to 12.3% in 2010, and the prevalence of smoking after delivery decreased from 18.6% in 2000 to 17.2% in 2010.

Science Speaks: A Focus on NIOSH Women in Science
The Women in Science video series spotlights a few of NIOSH’s many talented female scientists. They discuss their journeys to science, challenges and experiences along the way, work duties, and how they balance work with family. Also, they offer advice to aspiring scientists, encouraging girls and young women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

AMIGAS Outreach Intervention
AMIGAS is a bilingual educational outreach intervention designed to help promotoras (community health workers) and other lay health educators increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanics who have rarely or never had a Pap test. CDC funded a recent randomized controlled trial that showed AMIGAS is effective in promoting cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) among Hispanics aged 21 to 65 years.

Pregnancy Rates for U.S. Women Continue to Drop
The data in this report provide a comprehensive picture of pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy rates for women in the United States continued to decline in 2009, reaching the lowest level in 12 years (102.1 per 1,000 women aged 15–44). This level is 12% below the 1990 peak (115.8).

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding – How Communities Can Help
Across the United States, most new mothers hope to breastfeed. Breastfeeding can protect the health of babies and their mothers. With support from their families and communities, mothers are more likely to be able to breastfeed their babies.

On-Line Course Trains Nurses on Preventing Workplace Violence
A new free online course aims to train nurses on recognizing and preventing workplace violence. The multimedia training incorporates lesson text, videos depicting workplace violence incidents, testimonials from real nurses, and lesson quizzes.

How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?
Life expectancy for black females was 3.3 years lower than that of white females. This difference was due to higher death rates for black females for heart disease, cancer, diabetes, perinatal conditions, and stroke.

2012

African American Women Claiming their Power in Fight Against HIV
Take Charge. Take the Test. messages remind women that they have the power to take charge of their health and protect themselves from HIV through testing, talking openly with their partners about HIV, and insisting on safe sex. Resources for Take Charge. Take the Test

Breast Cancer Disparities
Black women have the highest death rates of all racial and ethnic groups and are 40% more likely to die of breast cancer than white women. The reasons for this difference result from many factors including having more aggressive cancers and fewer social and economic resources. To improve this disparity, black women need more timely follow-up and improved access to high-quality treatment.

Breastfeeding Action Guides
Health providers play a role to support patients’ intentions to breastfeed as well as health system changes to improve patient satisfaction and breastfeeding outcomes. These action guides outline what doctors, nurses, and health care leaders can do to make it possible for mothers to breastfeed their babies.

CDC Ad Campaign Reveals Harsh Reality of Smoking-Related Diseases
A hard-hitting national ad campaign that depicts the harsh reality of illness and damage suffered as a result of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was launched by CDC.

Current Contraceptive Use in the United States, 2006–2010, and Changes in Patterns of Use Since 1995
Sixty-two percent of women of reproductive age are currently using contraception. Of women using a contraceptive method in the month of the interview, the most common methods used are the pill (28%, or 10.6 million women) and female sterilization (27%, or 10.2 million women).

Emergency Preparedness and Response: Pregnant Women and Newborns
Research studies conducted after disasters in the United States have shown that pregnant women may have increased medical risks. Recently, CDC began to build capacity to respond to all types of events and track their effects on women and infants.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders App
This application provides the latest information related to the use of alcohol during pregnancy and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This application allows users to easily find and share the latest in the prevention, recognition, and treatment of FASDs.

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, September 2012
These updated tables for 119 chemicals include information by age, sex, and race/ethnicity.

Health Care Providers and Teen Pregnancy Prevention
Health care providers play a critical role in further reducing teen pregnancy rates through the care provided to adolescent patients. Tools, resources, media, and messages are available to assist the health provider.

Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth
These Key Statistics give some of the most important findings from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). All results are from published reports or special tabulations. Where available, a hyperlink to the source report is given.

Nurses’ Miscarriages Linked to Chemicals at Work
A new CDC study finds a greater-than-expected risk of miscarriages among nurses, associated with occupational exposures to hazardous drugs.

Preconception Care and Health care Resource Center
The Preconception Health and Health Care Resource Center (the Resource Center) is a comprehensive web directory of hyperlinks to tools and resources designed to advance the health of men and women of reproductive age.

Right to Know Campaign Materials
CDC conducted a study to explore the barriers to breast cancer screening for women who have physical disabilities. As a result of this study, a family of health promotion materials (e.g., posters, MP3 files, low-tech fliers, print advertisements, and tip sheets) has been designed to increase awareness of breast cancer among women with physical disabilities and encourage these women to get screened.

Safety and Health among Hotel Cleaners
CDC convened a number of partners to develop the National Services Agenda, which includes safety and health goals for the Ac­commodations Industry. Groups such as unions, worker organizations, government agencies, and hotel/motel associations can build partnerships to implement these goals and help ensure that hotels are safe for all employees.

Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection or Infected with HIV
This report summarizes CDC’s assessment of the evidence regarding hormonal contraceptive use and the risk for HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression and the resulting updated guid­ance.

Use of Selected Clinical Preventive Services Among Adults — United States, 2007–2010: Breast Cancer Screening Among Adult Women
In 2010, an estimated 75.4% women aged ≥40 years and 79.7% of women aged 50–74 years reported having a mammogram within the past 2 years.

2011

Vital Signs: Hospital Support for Breastfeeding
The report used CDC surveillance data to determine the percent of U.S. hospitals with policies and practices that are consistent with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. In addition, the report provides actions steps for government officials; health practitioners; hospitals administrators; and new mothers to support hospitals as they work to promote breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity. Spurred by the release of this issue of Vital Signs, Kaiser Permanente announced that by January 1, 2013, all of its 29 hospitals that offer maternal and child health services will meet the ten steps to support breastfeeding as a measure of hospital quality and a key strategy in preventing childhood obesity.

Responding to Influenza: A Toolkit for Prenatal Care Providers (pdf)
The purpose of this toolkit is to provide basic information and communication resources to help prenatal care providers implement CDC recommendations.

Cooperative Agreement to Support Young Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer
CDC awarded funding to seven organizations for a new three-year cooperative agreement, “Developing support and educational awareness for young (<45 years of age) breast cancer survivors in the United States,” as part of a broader effort to support breast cancer awareness in young women.

Million Hearts™: Preventing a Million Heart Attacks and Strokes in Five Years
Cardiovascular disease – heart disease and stroke – is the leading killer of women. To reduce stroke and heart attacks across the nation, the recently launched Million Hearts initiative is working to promote heart-healthy lifestyles and to improve patient care by focusing on the “ABCS” of clinical prevention: Aspirin for people at risk, Blood pressure control, Cholesterol management, and Smoking cessation.

CDC Announces New Effort to Boost Number of Baby-Friendly Hospitals
CDC has awarded nearly $6 million over three years to the National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality to help hospitals nationwide make quality improvements to maternity care to better support mothers and babies to be able to breastfeed. The goal of the project is to accelerate the number of U.S. Baby-Friendly hospitals.

CDC Launches Effort to Protect Cancer Patients from Infections
CDC’s Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients program is a comprehensive initiative focusing on providing information, action steps, and tools for patients, their families, and their health care providers to reduce the risk of life-threatening infections during chemotherapy treatment.

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) 
This survey provides baseline data that will be used to track trends in sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence. On average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States, based on a survey conducted in 2010. More than 1 million women are raped in a year and over 6 million women and men are victims of stalking in a year. These findings emphasize that sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are important and widespread public health problems in the United States.

Maternal and Infant Outcomes Among Severely Ill Pregnant and Postpartum Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) – United States, April 2009-August 2010
Among women who delivered while hospitalized for influenza, 63.6% delivered preterm or very preterm and 43.8% delivered low birth weight infants compared with U.S. averages of 12.3% for preterm birth and 8.2% for low birth weight.

Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy in the U.S.
Prevention efforts work by teaching teens how and why to delay starting sex and steps that they need to take if they become sexually active.

Opioid Pain Killers Linked to Increased Risk of Some Birth Defects
Babies born to women who take opioid pain killers such as codeine, oxycodone or hydrocodone just before or in early pregnancy are at increased but modest risk of birth defects, according to a CDC study.

Smoking Early in Pregnancy Raises Risk of Heart Defects in Infants
Maternal cigarette smoking in the first trimester was associated with a 20 to 70 percent greater likelihood that a baby would be born with certain types of congenital heart defects, according to a CDC study. The study is in the Feb. 28 issue of the journal Pediatrics.

Nail Technicians’ Health and Workplace Exposure Control
Nail salon employees are potentially exposed to dozens of chemicals including acrylates, solvents, and biocides as dusts or vapors.

Women at High Risk for Diabetes, Access and Quality of Health Care, 2003-2006
This report uses national datasets to provide information about the quality of care among women at high risk for diagnosed diabetes compared with women not at high risk. (CDC and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report)

Reproductive Health Assessment After Disaster Toolkit
This toolkit provides a set of tools to assess the reproductive health needs of women aged 15-44 affected by natural and man-made disasters. Questionnaire topics include safe motherhood, infant care, family planning, family stressors and service needs, health and risk behaviors, and gender-based violence. The RHAD Toolkit is intended for United States health departments, however, other government and non-governmental organizations may be interested who provide reproductive health services to U.S. disaster-affected women. (Funding and scientific technical assistance provided by CDC).

Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Contraceptive Methods During the Postpartum Period
CDC updated the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria (USMEC) for Contraceptive Use recommendations for combined hormonal contraceptive use among postpartum women, based on new scientific evidence.

2010

CDC provided guidance and recommendations on the prevention and treatment of H1N1 in pregnant women during the 2009-2010 flu season.

Updated scientific evidence on how tobacco causes disease. The report, How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General, also explains how smoking harms reproduction and children’s health. It discusses how smoking reduces a woman’s chance of getting pregnant and how it can increase the risk for pregnancy complications, premature delivery, low birth weight infants, stillbirth, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

CDC in partnership with Liz Claiborne, Inc., developed a new online training, Dating Matters: Understanding Teen Dating Violence Prevention. The training is for educators, youth leaders, and others working with teens to help them understand the importance of healthy relationships and how to prevent violence before it starts.

Text4baby is a mobile information service that provides free text messages to pregnant women and new moms to help keep them safe and healthy. The messages address a variety of topics, including immunizations, nutrition, flu, mental health, oral health, and more. CDC is one of many outreach partners for this new program.

The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines- 2010 advise physicians and other health-care providers on the most effective treatment regimens, screening procedures, and prevention and vaccination strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. The Guidelines are based on newly available evidence and include: expanded STD prevention recommendations including preexposure HPV vaccine; revised gonorrhea treatment regimens; new treatment regimens for genital warts and bacterial vaginosis; discussion of the role of mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in the evaluation of urethritis and cervicitis and treatment related implications; and revised guidance on the diagnostic evaluation and management of syphilis.

For 20 years, CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-cost mammograms and Pap tests to low-income women with little or no health insurance. Since 1990, NBCCEDP-funded programs have served more than 3.7 million women, provided more than 9.2 million breast and cervical cancer screening examinations, and diagnosed more than 44,885 breast cancers, 2,554 invasive cervical cancers, and 123,563 premalignant cervical lesions, of which 42% are high-grade.

CDC revised the Guidelines for the Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) Disease. These 2010 guidelines were developed using an evidence-based approach in collaboration with several professional associations.

Recent Trends in Cesarean Delivery in the United States reports that the cesarean rate rose by 53% from 1996 to 2007, reaching 32%, the highest rate ever reported in the United States. From 1996 to 2007, the cesarean rate increased for mothers in all age and racial and Hispanic origin groups.

Use of Contraception in the United States: 1982-2008 , presents national estimates of contraceptive use and method choice based on the 1982, 1995, 2002, and 2006–2008 National Surveys of Family Growth. Contraceptive use is a major factor affecting birth and pregnancy rates as well as the rate of unintended pregnancy.

CDC convened an Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, a federal advisory committee established by the Education and Awareness Requires Learning Young (EARLY) Act, section 10413 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148). The EARLY Act authorizes CDC to develop initiatives to increase knowledge of breast health and breast cancer among women, particularly among those under the age of 40 and those at heightened risk for developing the disease.

U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010 provides recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions.

This report, Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, 2006-2008, presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females 15-19 years of age in the United States in 2006-2008 from the National Survey of Family Growth.

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