Eye Health Conditions

VEHSS reports the prevalence of Eye Health Condition indicators based on survey self-reported diagnosis history, ophthalmologic examination in surveys or published studies, or diagnosis codes in administrative claims and electronic medical registry data.

Self-reported Indicators

Further details of all self-reported indicators are available in the following VEHSS technical documentation reports:

Review of National Survey Data on Eye Health CDC pdf icon[PDF – 1.2 MB]external icon

VEHSS Survey Analysis Plan CDC pdf icon[PDF – 480 KB]external icon

Examination Indicators

Further details of examination-based indicators from published sources are available in the VEHSS literature review report:

VEHSS Survey Analysis Plan CDC pdf icon[PDF – 480 KB]external icon

Diagnosis Code Indicators

The VEHSS system uses diagnosis codes to identify vision and eye disorders in all administrative claims and electronic medical registry data. Diagnosis codes are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) system. All ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes related to vision, the eye, and ocular adnexa are categorized in a two-level categorization system using mutually exclusive categories and sub-groups to provide more efficient estimates of key vision and eye health outcomes.

VEHSS Diagnosis Code Categories and Crosswalk CDC pdf icon[PDF – 2.1 MB]external icon This report includes the ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes mapped to each category and subgroup. Updated spreadsheet versions of this crosswalk are available upon request.

VEHSS Claims and Registry Data Analysis Plan CDC pdf icon[PDF – 580 KB]external icon This report details VEHSS’ approach to utilizing administrative claims and registry data to create systematic single-source estimates to inform integrated prevalence estimates.

VEHSS includes indicators for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) from examination-based data including NHANES and published studies, self-reported diagnosis history from NHANES, treated cases from claims databases, and diagnosed cases from IRIS Registry.

Examination-based

Examination-based Age-related Macular Degeneration as identified in retinal images.

Examination Surveys
Dataset Description Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
NHANES Percentage of people with age-related macular degeneration, based on examination opduarm –  ARM, 3 severity levels, worse eye 2005, 2008 2005-2008 0- No
1- Yes
.- Missing
NHIS Percentage of people who were ever told by an eye doctor they have age-related macular degeneration Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had Macular Degeneration? VIM_MDEV 2016, 2017 1 – Yes
2 – No
7 – Refused
8 – Not ascertained
9 – Don’t know
Study Years Location Citation
Published Examination Studies
Chinese American Eye Study (CHES) 2010-2013 California Varma R, Choudhury F, Chen S, et al. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Chinese American Adults: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(5):571–577.
Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group (EDPRG) 1985-1998 National Friedman DS, O’Colmain BJ, Munoz B, et al. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(4):564–572.
Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) 2000-2003 California Varma R, Fraser-Bell S, Tan S, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1288–1297.
Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 2002-2004 National Klein R, Klein BE, Knudtson MD, et al. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in 4 racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(3):373–380.

Self-reported

Self-reported Age-related Macular Degeneration indicates the respondent replied that an eye doctor told them they have age-related macular degeneration.

Self-Report Surveys
Dataset Description Question text Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
NHANES Percentage of people who were ever told by an eye doctor they have age-related macular degeneration {Have you/Has SP} ever been told by an eye doctor that {you have/s/he has} age-related macular (mac-u-lar) degeneration? VIQ31 2005, 2008 2005-2008 1 Yes
2 No
7 Don’t know / Not sure
9 Refused

Diagnosed or Treated

Diagnosed or Treated Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) includes diagnosis codes specifying degenerative diseases of the macula, including macula drusen, dry-form AMD (including geographic atrophy), and wet-form AMD (including active choroidal neovascularization).

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated AMD includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the AMD subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
AMD Subgroups
AMD, Unspecified Unspecified macular degeneration includes diagnosis codes indicating degeneration of macula and/or posterior pole, but does not specify stage.
Early AMD Early AMD includes diagnosis codes indicating the presence of drusen (degenerative) of the macula.
Dry-form AMD Dry-form AMD indicates the presence of diagnosis codes for nonexudative age-related macular degeneration.
Geographic atrophy AMD Geographic atrophy AMD indicates the presence of ICD10 codes approved after October 2018 indicating advanced atrophic stage of dry-form AMD. Because this is a new code, geographic atrophy is included in VEHSS as a subgroup of Dry-form AMD.
Wet-form AMD Wet-form AMD indicates the presence of diagnosis codes for exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Choroidal neovascularization AMD Choroidal neovascularization AMD indicates the presence of ICD10 codes approved after October 2018 specifying active choroidal neovascularization; advanced wet-form AMD. Because this is a new code, Choroidal neovascularization AMD is included in VEHSS as a subgroup of Wet-form AMD.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
Diagnosed or Treated AMD Indicator Data Sources
IRIS Registry 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Cancer and Neoplasms of the Eye from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Cancer and neoplasms of the eye includes diagnosis codes indicating any neoplasm of the eye.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated cancer and neoplasms of the eye includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the cancer and neoplasms of the eye subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Cancer and Neoplasms of the Eye Subgroups
Malignant neoplasm of the eye Malignant neoplasm of the eye includes diagnosis codes indicating malignant neoplasm of the eye, or carcinoma in situ of the eye.
Benign neoplasm of the eye Benign neoplasm of the eye includes diagnosis codes indicating benign neoplasm of the eye.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Cancer and Neoplasms of the Eye Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Cataracts from claims databases, IRIS Registry, survey self-report and published population-based examination studies.

Examination-based

Published Examination Studies
Study Years Location Citation
Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group (EDPRG) 1988-1998 National Congdon N, Vingerling JR, Klein BE, et al. Prevalence of cataract and pseudophakia/aphakia among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(4):487–494.
Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) 2000-2003 California Varma R, Torres M. Prevalence of Lens Opacities in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(8):1449–1456.

Self-reported

Self-reported Cataract indicates the respondent replied that an eye doctor told them they have cataracts.

Self-reported Cataract
Dataset Description Question text Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
NHIS Percentage of adults ever told by a doctor or other health professional they had cataracts (NHIS Adult Module) Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had cataracts? VIM_CAEV, CATAREV, AVISCAT 1999, 2002, 2008, 2016,
2017
2016, 2017 1 Yes
2 No
7 Refused
8 Not ascertained
9 Don’t know

Diagnosed or Treated

Cataract includes diagnosis codes indicating age-related cataract, congenital cataract, posterior capsular opacity, pseudophakia, aphakia and other disorders of lens, and other or unspecified cataract.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated cataract includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the cataract subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Cataract Subgroups
Age-related cataract Age-related cataract indicates the presence of diagnosis codes for age-related incipient, polar, cortical, nuclear, morgagnian, other or unspecified cataract.
Other or unspecified cataract Other or unspecified cataract includes diagnosis codes for various cataracts not specified as age-related or congenital, including traumatic cataract, drug-induced cataract, cataract with neovascularization, cataract secondary to ocular disorders, or unspecified cataracts.
Congenital Cataract Congenital Cataract includes diagnosis codes indicating congenital cataract, congenital aphakia, coloboma of lens, spherophakia, congenital lens malformations, or infantile or juvenile cataracts of any type.
Posterior capsular opacity Posterior capsular opacity includes diagnosis codes indicating posterior capsular opacity, Soemmering’s ring, or other secondary cataract.
Pseudophakia Pseudophakia includes diagnosis codes indicating the presence of intraocular lens or aphakia.
Aphakia and other disorders of lens Aphakia and other disorders of lens includes diagnosis codes indicating aphakia, subluxation of lens, anterior dislocation of lens, posterior dislocation of lens, or other disorders of lens.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

 

Diagnosed or Treated Cataract Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Cornea Disorders from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Cornea disorders includes diagnosis codes indicating keratoconus, endothelial dystrophy (Fuchs dystrophy), or other corneal disorders.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated cornea disorders includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the cornea disorder subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Cornea Disorder Subgroups
Keratoconus Keratoconus includes diagnosis codes indicating keratoconus or conical cornea conditions.
Endothelial dystrophy (inc Fuchs) Endothelial dystrophy includes diagnosis codes indicating Endothelial or Fuchs dystrophy.
Other Corneal disorders Other Corneal disorders includes diagnosis codes indicating corneal scars, opacities and other disorders of the cornea.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Cornea Disorder Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Diabetic Retinopathy from claims databases, IRIS Registry, published population-based examination studies, and self-report and examination surveys.

Examination-based

Examination-based Diabetic Retinopathy indicates the respondent had graded retinopathy level from 14 to 80 in the worse eye.

Examination-based Diabetic Retinopathy
Dataset Description Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
NHANES Percentage of people with diabetic retinopathy, based on examination OPDURET  – Retinopathy level, worse eye 2005, 2008 2005-2008 14 – HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS
15 – HEM only, no MAS
20 – MAS only
31 – Early NPR
41 – Moderate NPR
51 – Severe NPR
60 – Fibrous prolif. only
61 – No retinopathy but PRP laser
62 – MAS only + PRP laser
63 – Early NPR + PRP laser
64 – Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser
65 – PR < HRC
70 – PR >= HRC
80 – Total VH
Study Years Location Citation
Published Examination Studies
Chinese American Eye Study (CHES) 2010-2013 California Varma R, Wen G, Jiang X, et al. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Adult Chinese American Individuals: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(5):563–569.
Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group (EDPRG) 1980-2000 National Kempen JH, O’Colmain BJ, Leske MC, et al. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(4):552–563.
Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) 2000-2003 California Varma R, Torres M, Pena F, Klein R, Azen SP; L. A. L. E. S. Group. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Adult Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1298–1306.
Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 2002-2004 National Wong TY, Klein R, Islam FM, et al. Diabetic retinopathy in a multi-ethnic cohort in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141(3):446–455.
Proyecto VER (Vision Evaluation and Research) 1997-1999 Arizona West SK, Klein R, Rodriguez J, et al. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(7):1204–1209.

Self-reported

Self-reported Diabetic Retinopathy indicates the respondent replied that a doctor ever told them that diabetes had affected their eyes or they had retinopathy.

Self-report Surveys
Dataset Description Question text Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
NHANES Percentage of people who were ever told by an eye doctor their diabetes affected their eyes Has a doctor ever told {you/SP} that diabetes has affected {your/his/her} eyes or that {you/s/he} had retinopathy (ret-in-op-ath-ee)? DIQ080 1999-2016 2005-2008 1 – Yes
2 – No
7 – Refused
9 – Don’t know
. – Missing
NHIS Percentage of people who were ever told by an eye doctor they have diabetic retinopathy Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had Diabetic retinopathy? VIM_DREV 2016, 2017 2016, 2017 1 – Yes
2 – No
7 – Refused
8 – Not ascertained
9 – Don’t know

Diagnosed or Treated

Diagnosed or Treated Diabetic eye diseases include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, and other ophthalmic complications of diabetes.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated diabetic eye disease is indicated by a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the diabetic eye disease subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Diabetic Retinopathy Subgroups
Early/mild diabetic retinopathy Early/Mild Diabetic Retinopathy includes diagnosis codes for background diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Moderate /severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy Moderate /Severe Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy includes diagnosis codes indicating moderate or severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, without macular edema.
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy includes diagnosis codes indicating proliferative diabetic retinopathy, without macular edema.
Diabetic macular edema (DME) Diabetic Macular Edema (DME, CSDME) includes diagnosis codes indicating diabetic retinopathy of any type with the presence of macular edema (DME), including clinically significant diabetic macular edema (CSDME).
Other/unspecified diabetes related eye conditions Other/unspecified diabetes related eye conditions includes diagnosis codes indicating diabetic retinopathy of unspecified type, other ophthalmic complications of diabetes including diabetic cataract, or diabetes mellitus with ophthalmic complication resolved after treatment.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Diabetic Retinopathy Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

Diagnosed or Treated

Diagnosed blindness or Low Vision is included in the Visual Function topic but is also described here because it is often associated with a diagnosed eye condition. Diagnosed blindness or Low Vision includes diagnosis codes indicating low vision or blindness in two types of data sources:

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated Blindness or Low Vision is indicated by a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the blindness or low vision subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Blindness or Low Vision Subgroups
Unqualified visual loss, both eyes​ Unqualified vision loss, both eyes includes a diagnosis code indicating unqualified visual loss in both eyes.
Unqualified vision loss in one eye, or unspecified visual loss Unqualified vision loss in one eye or unspecified vision loss includes diagnosis codes indicating unqualified vision loss in one eye, unspecified visual loss, or problems with sight.
Low vision or blindness, one eye Low vision or blindness in one eye includes diagnosis codes indicating low vision or blindness in one eye, normal vision in the other eye.
Blindness one eye, low vision other eye Blindness in one eye, low vision in other eye includes diagnosis codes indicating blindness in one eye, low vision in other eye.
Low vision, both eyes Low vision, both eyes includes diagnosis codes indicating low vision in both eyes.
Blindness, both eyes, including legal blindness Blindness, both eyes, including legal blindness includes diagnosis codes indicating blindness in both eyes, legal blindness, or cortical blindness.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Blindness or Low Vision Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
MarketScan commercial insurance 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Disorders of Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways includes diagnosis codes indicating disorders of the optic nerve or visual pathways.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Disorders of Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways Subgroups
Optic nerve disorders​ Optic nerve disorders includes diagnosis codes indicating optic neuritis and other disorders of the optic nerve.
Disorders of the visual pathway and visual cortex  Disorders of the visual pathway and visual cortex includes diagnosis codes indicating disorders of visual pathways and visual cortex.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Disorders of Refraction and Accommodation from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Disorders of refraction and accommodation includes diagnosis codes indicating myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, presbyopia, and other disorders of refraction and accommodation.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated disorders of refraction and accommodation includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the disorders of refraction and accommodation subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Disorders of Refraction and Accommodation Subgroups
Myopia​ Myopia includes diagnosis codes indicating myopia in one or both eyes.
Hypermetropia Hypermetropia includes diagnosis codes indicating hypermetropia in one or both eyes.
Astigmatism Astigmatism includes diagnosis codes indicating regular, irregular, or unspecified astigmatism in one or both eyes.
Presbyopia Presbyopia includes diagnosis codes indicating presbyopia in one or both eyes.
Other disorder of refraction and accommodation  Other disorder of refraction and accommodation includes diagnosis codes indicating anisometropia and aniseikonia, disorders of accommodation, internal ophthalmoplegia, paresis of accommodation, or spasm of accommodation.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Disorders of Refraction and Accommodation Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators for Glaucoma from examination-based data including NHANES and published studies, self-reported diagnosis history from NHANES, treated cases from claims databases, and diagnosed cases from IRIS Registry.

Examination-based

Examination-based glaucoma indicates the respondent had graded probably or definite glaucoma in either eye based on retinal imaging.

Dataset Description Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
Examination Surveys
NHANES​ Percentage of people with glaucoma, based on examination OPASCST2 – Exam status;
OPXDGLAU – Glaucoma, right eye;
OPXSGLAU – Glaucoma, left eye
2005, 2008 2005, 2008 2 – Probable
3 – Definite
Study Years Location Citation
Published Examination Studies
Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group (EDPRG) 1985-2000 Multi-national Friedman DS, Wolfs RC, O’Colmain BE, et al. Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(4):532–538.
Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) 2000-2003 California Kim E, Varma R. Glaucoma in Latinos/Hispanics. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21(2):100–105.
Salisbury Eye Evaluation Glaucoma Study 2001-2003 Maryland Friedman DS, Jampel HD, Munoz B, West SK. The Prevalence of Open-Angle Glaucoma Among Blacks and Whites 73 years and Older: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Glaucoma Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124(11):1625–1630.

Self-reported

Self-reported glaucoma indicates the respondent replied that an eye doctor ever told them that they had glaucoma or high pressure in their eyes.

Dataset Description Question text Variable name(s) Years available Years analyzed Response options
Self-reported glaucoma
NHANE​S Percentage of people ever told by an eye doctor they have glaucoma {Have you/Has SP} ever been told by an eye doctor that {you have/s/he has} glaucoma (gla-co-ma), sometimes called high pressure in {your/his/her} eyes? VIQ090 2005, 2008 2005-2008  1 – Yes
2 – No
7 – Don’t know / Not sure
8 – Refused
NHIS Percentage of people who were ever told by an eye doctor they had glaucoma Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had glaucoma VIM_GLEV 2016, 2017 2016, 2017 1 – yes
2 – No
7 – Refused
8 – Not ascertained
9 – Don’t know

Diagnosed or Treated

Glaucoma includes diagnosis codes indicating glaucoma suspect, open-angle, narrow angle, angle closure, low tension, congenital, neovascular, or other or unspecified types of glaucoma.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated glaucoma includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the glaucoma subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Glaucoma Subgroups
Open-angle glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma includes diagnosis codes indicating unspecified open-angle glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or capsular glaucoma with pseudoexfoliation of lens.
Primary open-angle glaucoma Primary open-angle glaucoma includes diagnosis codes for primary open-angle glaucoma of any stage.
Low-tension glaucoma Low-tension glaucoma includes diagnosis codes for low-tension glaucoma of any stage.
Glaucoma suspect Glaucoma suspect indicates diagnosis codes for pre-glaucoma, open-angle with borderline findings, ocular hypertension, steroid responder, or primary angle closure without damage.
Primary angle-closure glaucoma Primary angle-closure glaucoma includes diagnosis codes indicating primary, acute, chronic, intermittent or unspecified angle-closure glaucoma.
Narrow-angle glaucoma Narrow-angle glaucoma includes diagnosis codes indicating narrow angle glaucoma, anatomical or secondary to eye trauma.
Congenital glaucoma Congenital glaucoma includes diagnosis codes for congenital glaucoma or buphthalmos (enlargement of the eye in children).
Neovascular glaucoma Neovascular glaucoma includes diagnosis codes indicating glaucoma associated with vascular disorders, phacolytic or other specified glaucoma.
Other/unspecified glaucoma Other/unspecified glaucoma includes diagnosis codes indicating unspecified glaucoma, glaucoma secondary to drugs, other eye disorders or inflammation, hypersecretion glaucoma, increased episcleral venous pressure, or aqueous misdirection.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Glaucoma Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Infectious and inflammatory diseases includes diagnosis codes indicating infectious diseases, keratitis, conjunctivitis, eyelid disorder, other inflammatory conditions of the eye, disorders of the lacrimal system, orbit inflammation, and endophthalmitis.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated infectious and inflammatory diseases includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the infectious and inflammatory disease subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases Subgroups
Infectious diseases​ Infectious diseases includes diagnosis codes indicating an infection of the eye or ocular adnexa.
Keratitis Keratitis includes diagnosis codes indicating keratitis, including corneal ulcer, other and unspecified superficial keratitis without conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, corneal neovascularization, or other or unspecified forms of keratitis.
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis includes diagnosis codes indicating most forms of conjunctivitis, including mucopurulent, acute, chronic, blepharoconjunctivitis, or other disorders of conjunctiva, including pterygium, conjunctival degenerations and deposits, or conjunctival scars, hemorrhage, vascular disorders, or cysts.
Eyelid disorders Eyelid disorders includes diagnosis codes indicating hordeolum and chalazion or other inflammation of the eyelid, including Blepharitis, noninfectious dermatosis or other inflammation of the eyelid.
Other inflammatory conditions Other inflammatory conditions includes diagnosis codes indicating inflammation of the eye or ocular adnexa not otherwise classified.
Lacrimal system and orbit inflammation Lacrimal system and orbit inflammation includes diagnosis codes indicating disorders of the lacrimal system and inflammatory disorders of the orbit.
Endophthalmitis  Endophthalmitis includes diagnosis codes indicating enophthalmitis and disorders of the globe including degenerative myopia and uveitis.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Injury, Burns and Surgical Complications of the Eye from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Injury, burns, and surgical complications of the eye includes diagnosis codes indicating injury or burn to the eye or ocular adnexa, surgical complications and conditions typically associated with eye procedures.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated injury, burns, and surgical complications of the eye includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the injury, burns, and surgical complications of the eye subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Injury, Burns, and Surgical Complications Subgroups
Injury Injury includes diagnosis codes indicating injury to the eye or ocular adnexa, due to trauma, foreign bodies, penetrating wounds, bites, abrasions or other causes, or injury secondary to other ocular disorders.
Burn Burn includes diagnosis codes indicating any type of burn or corrosion of the eye or ocular adnexa.
Surgical complication Surgical complication includes diagnosis codes indicating or typically associated with surgical complications, including postprocedural inflammation or infection, mechanical complications, cataract fragments, and other conditions usually associated with procedures.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Injury, Burns, and Surgical Complications Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Orbital and External Disease from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

All orbital and external disease includes diagnosis codes indicating congenital abnormalities of the eye, orbital and external disease, dry eye syndrome and disorders of the lacrimal system, eyelids, globe and orbit.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated orbital and external disease includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the orbital and external disease subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Orbital and External Disease Subgroups
Congenital anomalies Congenital anomalies includes diagnosis codes indicating congenital malformations of the eye and ocular adnexa.
Other/unspecified orbital or external disease Other/unspecified orbital or external disease includes diagnosis codes indicating non-inflammatory disorders of the orbit.
Lacrimal diseases Lacrimal diseases includes diagnosis codes indicating disorders of the lacrimal system, including dacryoadenitis, epiphora, stenosis and insufficiency of lacrimal passages, or other changes or disorders of the lacrimal system.
Eyelid disorders Eyelid disorders includes diagnosis codes indicating non-inflammatory disorders of the eyelid, including entropion, ectropion, lagophthalmos, ptosis, blepharochalasis, xanthelasma disorders of the eyelid, or other non-specified, non-inflammatory eyelid disorders.
Dry eye syndrome Dry eye syndrome includes diagnosis codes indicating dry eye syndrome.
Disorders of the globe Disorders of the globe includes diagnosis codes indicating disorders of the globe, excluding endoophthalmitis, degenerative myopia, and hypotony of the eye.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Orbital and External Disease Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS Registry​ 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Other Eye Disorders from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Other eye disorders includes diagnosis codes related to vision, the eye and ocular adnexa that are not otherwise classified.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.
Diagnosed or Treated Other Eye Disorders Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

VEHSS includes indicators of Other Retinal Disorders from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Other Retinal Disorders includes diagnosis codes indicating retinal vein or arterial occlusion, non-occlusive retinal vascular disease, cystoid or other non-specified macular edema, chorioretinal dystrophy and myopic degeneration.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated other retinal disorders includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the other retinal disorders subgroups listed below.

Subgroup Indicated conditions
Other Retinal Disorders Subgroups
Retina vascular disease, Occlusive (arterial, venous)​ Retina vascular disease, Occlusive (arterial, venous) includes diagnosis codes indicating unspecified or transient retinal vascular occlusion.
Central retinal vein occlusion Central retinal vein occlusion indicates diagnosis codes for central retinal vein occlusion, with or without macular edema or retinal neovascularization.
Branch retinal vein occlusion Branch retinal vein occlusion indicates diagnosis codes for tributary (branch) retinal vein occlusion, with or without macular edema or retinal neovascularization, or venous engorgement.
Central retinal arterial occlusion Central retinal arterial occlusion indicates diagnosis codes for central retinal arterial occlusion, with or without macular edema or retinal neovascularization.
Branch retinal artery occlusion Branch retinal artery occlusion indicates diagnosis codes for tributary (branch) retinal arterial occlusion.
Retina vascular disease, Non-Occlusive Retina vascular disease, Non-Occlusive includes diagnosis codes indicating hypertensive or exudative retinopathy, changes in retinal vascular appearance, retinal micro-aneurysms, retinal telangiectasis, neovascularization, or vasculitis, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, or unspecified background retinopathy.
Macular edema (Cystoid or non-diabetic) Macular edema (Cystoid or non-diabetic) indicates diagnosis codes for cystoid macular degeneration.
Hereditary chorioretinal dystrophy Hereditary chorioretinal dystrophy includes diagnosis codes indicating various types of chiorioretinal dystrophy, including circumpapillary, central choroidal atrophy, and choroideremia.
Myopic degeneration  Myopic degeneration includes diagnosis codes indicating progressive high (degenerative) myopia.
 Other/unspecified retinal disorders  Other/unspecified retinal disorders include diagnosis codes indicating age-related choroidal atrophy, diffuse secondary atrophy of choroid, retinoschisis, retinal cysts, cyst of ora serrata, retinopathy of prematurity, non-diabetic proliferative retinopathy, unspecified separation of retinal layers, central serous chorioretinopathy, detachment of retinal pigment epithelium, macular cyst, hole, or pseudohole, toxic maculopathy, puckering of macula, various forms of retinal degeneration, retinal hemorrhage, and other or unspecified retinal disorders.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Other Retinal Disorders Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

Other Visual Disturbances includes indicators representing both Visual Function and Eye Health Conditions. Eye Health Conditions based on diagnosis codes are summarized below.  VEHSS includes indicators of Other Visual Disturbances from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Other visual disturbances includes diagnosis codes indicating visual field defects, color vision deficiencies, night blindness, and other or unspecified visual disturbances.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated other visual disturbances includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the other visual disturbances subgroups listed below.

Other Visual Disturbances Subgroups
Subgroup Indicated condition
Visual field defect​ Visual field defect includes diagnosis codes indicating defects of the visual field, including scotoma, sector or arcuate defects, localized visual field defects, homonymous bilateral field defects or contraction of the visual field.
Color blindness Color blindness included diagnosis codes indicating color vision deficiencies.
Night blindness Night blindness includes diagnosis codes indicating night blindness, abnormal dark adaptation and glare sensitivity.
Other/unspecified visual disturbances Other/unspecified visual disturbances includes other disturbances or defects of sight including subjective visual disturbances, diplopia, other and unspecified disorders of binocular vision, and vision sensitivity deficiencies.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Other Visual Disturbances Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

VEHSS includes indicators of Retinal Detachment and Defects from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Retinal detachment and defects includes diagnosis codes indicating retinal detachment and retinal breaks without detachment.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.
Diagnosed or Treated Retinal Detachment and Defects Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes: VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

VEHSS includes indicators of Strabismus and Amblyopia from claims databases and IRIS Registry.

Diagnosed or Treated

Strabismus and amblyopia includes diagnosis codes indicating strabismus or amblyopia.

  • Diagnosed prevalence: IRIS Registry indicates Diagnosed conditions that exists in the patient’s medical record.
  • Treated prevalence: Administrative claims databases indicate Treated conditions for which a diagnosis code was included anywhere on a submitted bill.

Diagnosed or Treated strabismus and amblyopia includes a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the strabismus and amblyopia subgroups listed below.

Subgroups Indicated conditions
Strabismus and Amblyopia Subgroups
Amblyopia Amblyopia includes diagnosis codes indicating amblyopia, including deprivation, strabismic, refractive, or unspecified amblyopia type, or ablyopia suspect.
Strabismus and amblyopia Strabismus and amblyopia includes diagnosis codes indicating strabismus or amblyopia.

Full lists of ICD9 and ICD10 codes:  VEHSS diagnosis codes reportpdf iconexternal icon

Diagnosed or Treated Strabismus and Amblyopia Indicator Data Sources
Dataset Years analyzed Measure type
IRIS 2016, 2017, 2018 Diagnosed
Medicare 100% FFS claims 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Treated
Managed Vision Care 2016 Treated
Medicaid MAX 2013, 2014 Treated
MarketScan commercial 2016 Treated