Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking Among Men
Understanding Violence Against Men
Male victimization is a significant public health problem, according to estimates in the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) indicate that.
Across U.S. states, nearly a quarter of men reported some form of contact sexual violence in their lifetime. Approximately 1 in 10 men in the U.S. experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetime and reported some form of IPV-related impact. Commonly reported IPV-related impacts among male victims were fear, concern for safety, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, among others.
Facts about Male Victimization
Survey data have found that men experience a high prevalence of intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking. Most first-time victimizations occur before the age 25, with many victims first experiencing violence before age 18.
Intimate Partner Violence
- About 1 in 3 men experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetime.
- Nearly 56% of men who were victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner first experienced these or other forms of violence by that partner before age 25.
Men and boys can be victims of sexual violence (SV), stalking, and intimate partner violence (IPV). These forms of violence can happen in childhood, teen years, or in adulthood.
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) – Physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health by a current or former intimate partner.
Sexual Violence (SV) – Sexual activity when consent is not obtained or given freely.
Contact Sexual Violence – Includes rape (penetration of the victim), being made to penetrate someone else, sexual coercion, and/or unwanted sexual contact.
Stalking – Occurs when someone repeatedly harasses or threatens someone else, causing fear or safety concerns.
- Nearly 1 in 4 men in the U.S. experienced some form of contact sexual violence in their lifetime.
- About 1 in 14 men in the U.S. were made to penetrate someone during their lifetime.
- More than 1 in 38 men in the U.S. experienced completed or attempted rape victimization in their lifetime.
- Among male victims of completed or attempted rape, about 71% first experienced such victimization prior to age 25.
- About 1 in 17 men in the U.S. were victims of stalking at some point in their lifetime.
- Nearly 41% of male victims first experienced stalking before age 25.
Rape vs. Made to Penetrate (MTP)
MTP is a form of sexual violence that some in the practice field consider similar to rape. CDC measures rape and MTP as separate concepts and views the two as distinct types of violence with potentially different consequences. Given the burden of these forms of violence in the lives of Americans, it is important to understand the difference in order to raise awareness.
- Rape entails any completed or attempted unwanted penetration of the victim through the use of physical force or when the victim was unable to consent due to being too drunk, high, or drugged (e.g., incapacitation, lack of consciousness, or lack of awareness) from their voluntary or involuntary use of alcohol or drugs.
- Being MTP occurs when the victim was made to, or there was an attempt to make them, sexually penetrate someone without consent as a result of physical force or when the victim is unable to consent due to being too drunk, high, or drugged, (e.g., incapacitation, lack of consciousness, or lack of awareness) from their voluntary or involuntary use of alcohol or drugs.
Type and Sex of Perpetrators of IPV, SV and Stalking of Male Victims
Perpetrators are usually known to their victims. Among male victims of stalking and sexual violence, perpetrators were most often a current or former intimate partner or an acquaintance.
The sex of the perpetrator depends on the type of violence. According to NISVS, perpetrators of rape and unwanted sexual contact against male victims were mostly other men, while perpetrators of other forms of SV such as MTP and sexual coercion against men were most often women. Both women and men perpetrate stalking of men. Women were mostly the perpetrators of intimate partner violence against men.
- 87% of male victims of (completed or attempted) rape reported only male perpetrators.
- 79% of male victims of being MTP reported only female perpetrators.
- 82% of male victims of sexual coercion reported only female perpetrators.
- 53% of male victims of unwanted sexual contact reported only female perpetrators.
- 48% of male victims of lifetime non-contact unwanted sexual experiences reported only male perpetrators.
- 46% of male victims reported being stalked by only female perpetrators.
- 43% of male victims reported being stalked by only male perpetrators.
- 8% of male victims reported being stalked by both male and female perpetrators.
Intimate partner violence:
- 97% of men who experienced rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner had only female perpetrators.
Prevention is Key
By better understanding the specific experiences of male victims of violence, we can take action in our communities to stop violence before it starts.
- National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2015 Data Brief
- The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010-2012 State Report [4.32 MB, 272 Pages, 508]
- Intimate Partner Violence in the United States – 2010 [1.78 MB, 96 Pages, 508]