NVDRS Data and Publications

Data Access

Data and Publications

NVDRS data are stored in an incident-based, relational database. Descriptive data can be accessed free of charge from NCIPC’s Web-based Injury Statistics and Query System (WISQARS). More detailed data from the NVDRS Restricted Access Database (RAD) is available by request for users meeting certain eligibility criteria.

WISQARS Violent Deaths (NVDRS) Module

WISQARS is an interactive query system that provides data on fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States. Any data user can access WISQARS online.

The NVDRS module in WISQARS provides descriptive information on violence-related deaths available from participating states. The query system provides incident counts as well as crude and age-adjusted death rates by manner of death and cause of injury. Also, queries can be tailored to include states, years, age ranges, sex, and racial or ethnic groups of interest. Visit WISQARS NVDRS online for more information.

NVDRS Restricted Access Database (RAD)

The NVDRS Restricted Access Database (RAD) is a de-identified, multi-state, case-level data set comprised of hundreds of unique variables. The database includes short narratives to describe the circumstances related to violent deaths, including descriptions from law enforcement and medical examiner or coroner investigative reports.

The RAD contains confidential information that could lead to accidental disclosure of the identity of suspects and victims. CDC protects these data by requiring users to meet certain eligibility requirements and to take steps necessary to ensure the security of data, preserve confidentiality, and prevent unauthorized access to these data.

Guidelines for RAD Proposals

At this time, there are no costs for accessing the NVDRS RAD. It is also important to note that CDC staff are unable to provide analytic or other technical assistance to recipients for the proposed research.

Eligibility to Apply for RAD

To request the NVDRS RAD, the primary investigator must meet all of the following criteria:

  • Have a Ph.D., Dr. P.H., M.D., ScD, D.O., or other doctoral level degree
  • Hold a research position or faculty appointment at his/her institution
  • Home institution must be a research organization, government agency, or institution of higher education. This includes research foundations or grant-making organizations.
  • Agree to comply with NVDRS RAD security, confidentiality, and data protection requirements, as outlined during the review process

Local, county, and state government employees, regardless of degree or research position, are also eligible to apply for the NVDRS RAD. Eligible investigators must prepare and submit a proposal. The ability of the principal investigator to conduct the proposed analyses and to comply with NVDRS RAD security, confidentiality, and data protection requirements are considered during the proposal package review process.

Proposal Package and Submission

The 2-4 page proposal package must include the items listed below. Submit the package to NVDRS RAD at nvdrs-rad@cdc.gov.

  1. Cover letter on official home institution letterhead
  2. Project title
  3. Abstract: max. 250 words summarizing the project
  4. Full personal identification, institutional affiliation, mailing addresses, phone, and email address of the person to be primarily responsible for care of the data and for compliance with the terms of the data sharing agreement
  5. Names of all other collaborators who will be accessing the RAD files under the requesting principal investigator’s supervision
  6. Source of funding for the proposed project, if applicable
  7. Background of study (max. 250 words):
    • Key study questions or hypotheses
    • Public health benefits. Requestors must provide evidence that there is a legitimate public health purpose that justifies the use of the data.
  8. Methods for the study (max. 700 words) including:
    • Summary of the variables needed for the proposed research. A variable specifications sheet that lists available variables in the NVDRS will be provided prior to submitting the proposal and should be used for this purpose. This sheet with requested variables should be returned with the proposal. In addition to specifying the requested NVDRS variables, any data from other sources that might be merged with NVDRS data should be described. To obtain the NVDRS coding manual and other NVDRS related materials, please visit the NVDRS Technical Assistance page.
    • Proposed analytic strategy (e.g., statistical analysis, data linkages).
  9. Data management plan, including description of the mechanisms that will be in place to secure the data, preserve confidentiality, and prevent unauthorized access. These mechanisms are to include the data storage plan, limitations on access to the data, technical security practices such as password protection, use of stand-alone computers, encryption, and procedures covering networked computers and servers. This section must also include a description of the destruction of all NVDRS RAD files, and all derived files, when the approved use of the data will have been completed (i.e., on the agreed upon date scheduled by the CDC). The destruction date is five years from the receipt of the data unless otherwise specified.
  10. Description of the anticipated products, reports, and publications to be derived from the data analyses (max. 250 words).
  11. The requestor must also include in the proposal package a completed and signed copy of the NVDRS Data Sharing Agreement (Note: A ll collaborators, who will be accessing the RAD files under the requesting Principal Investigator’s supervision, must sign the NVDRS RAD Data Sharing Agreement.). The NVDRS Data Sharing Agreement form should be requested prior to submitting the proposal.
  12. If the proposal includes any potential linking of NVDRS data with another data source that contains personally identifiable information then a signed copy of approval from the institution’s IRB should be included.

Review Process

The NVDRS RAD review committee consists of a panel of scientific and data analysis experts within CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

Upon receipt of the proposal package, a committee will review the submission to ensure it meets the requirements established to protect the confidentiality of the data. In each proposal, the review committee will look for the following criteria:

  • Scientific and technical feasibility of the study
  • Qualifications of all people who will have access to the data
  • Consistency between requested data and study goals
  • Description of any additional data that will be linked to NVDRS RAD data
  • Anticipated publications or other dissemination of results
  • Risk of disclosure of restricted information
  • Protections in place to maintain confidentiality of the data
  • A legitimate public health purpose will be served by use of the data

The committee reviews proposals as they are received, and typically responds within 3-4 weeks. An incomplete proposal package will be returned upon receipt. The review of complex projects that require extensive communication between NVDRS staff and the applicants may take longer to complete. When a proposal is approved, the principal investigator will be notified by email and will receive the data via FTP (file transfer protocol).

Investigators are permitted to conduct only those analyses that have received approval. RAD requesters can request a copy of and submit a completed amendment form to nvdrs-rad@cdc.gov to add data years, to request permissions for new investigators/staff that will be added to an approved project, and to request permission to modify the scope of the study. Requests to add data years to an existing project that has been approved will be expedited; in this case, a committee review is not required. CDC reserves the right to deny or terminate any project at any time when it deems an investigator’s/researcher’s actions may compromise confidentiality or ethical standards of behavior in a research environment. Failure to comply will result in the cancellation of the research activity and exclusion from future research activities using the NVDRS RAD.

Contact Information

Contact the NVDRS RAD team at nvdrs-rad@cdc.gov for the following:

  • To ask questions and further information about the NVDRS RAD
  • To request a copy of the NVDRS RAD data sharing agreement
  • To request a copy of the NVDRS RAD variable specification sheet
  • To submit the proposal package

NVDRS Journal Articles


Logan JE, Ertl A, Bossarte R. Correlates of intimate partner homicide among male suicide decedents with known intimate partner problems. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior. 2019 Jun 12.

Petrosky E, Blair JM, Betz CJ, Fowler KA, Jack SPD, Lyons BH. Racial and ethnic differences in homicides of adult women and the role of intimate partner violence – United States, 2003-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 21;66(28):741-746. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6628a1.

Blair JM, Fowler KA, Betz CJ, Baumgardner JL. Occupational homicides of law enforcement officers, 2003-2013: data from the National Violent Death Reporting Systemexternal icon. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S188-S196. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.019.

Crosby AE, Lyons BH. Assessing homicides by and of U.S. law-enforcement officersexternal icon. N Engl J Med 2016;20;375(16):1509-1511.

DeGue S, Fowler KA, Calkins C. Deaths due to use of lethal force by law enforcement: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 U.S. States, 2009-2012external icon. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S173-S187. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.027.

Smith SG, Fowler KA, Niolon PH. Intimate partner homicide and corollary victims in 16 states: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009. Am J Public Health 2014;104(3):461–6external icon. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301582.

Egley A, Logan J, McDaniel D. Gang homicides — five U.S. cities, 2003–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2012; 61: 46-51.

Karch D, Nunn KC. Characteristics of elderly and other vulnerable adult victims of homicide by a caregiver: National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. states, 2003–2007. J Interpers Violence 2011;26(1):137–57. doi: 10.1177/0886260510362890.

Logan J, Smith S, Stevens M. Homicides — United States, 1999–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rep; 60; 67-70.

Smith S, Basile K, Karch D. Sexual homicide and sexual violence-associated homicide: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Homicide Studies 2011;15(2):132–153. doi: 10.1177/1088767911406236.

Klevens J, Leeb RT. Child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5: findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System. Child Abuse Negl 2010;34(4):262–6. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.005.


Lyons BH, Walters ML, Jack SP, Petrosky E, Blair JM, Ivey-Stephenson AZ. Suicides among lesbian and gay male individuals: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. American journal of preventive medicine. 2019 Apr 1;56(4):512-21.

Tian N, Zack M, Fowler KA, Hesdorffor DC. Suicide Timing in 18 States of the United States from 2003–2014. Archives of Suicide Research. 2019 Apr 3;23(2):261-72.

Annor FB, Zwald ML, Wilkinson A, et al. Characteristics of and precipitating circumstances surrounding suicide among persons aged 10–17 years — Utah, 2011–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:329–332. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6711a.

Leavitt RA, Ertl A, Sheats K, Petrosky E, Ivey-Stephenson A, Fowler KA. Suicides among American Indian/Alaska Natives – National Violent Death Reporting System, 18 States, 2003-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):237-242. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6708a1.

Petrosky E, Harpaz R, Fowler KA, Bohm MK, Helmick CG, Yuan K, Betz CJ. Chronic pain among suicide decedents, 2003 to 2014: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting Systemexternal icon. Ann Intern Med 2018. doi: 10.7326/M18-0830.

Stone DM, Simon TR, Fowler KA, et al. Vital Signs: trends in state suicide rates — United States, 1999–2016 and circumstances contributing to suicide — 27 states, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:617–624. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6722a1.

Holland KM, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Logan JE, Leemis RW. Antecedents of suicide among youth aged 11-15: a multistate mixed methods analysisexternal icon. J Youth Adolesc 2017;46(7):1598-1610. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0610-3.

Logan JE, Fowler KA, Patel NP, Holland KM. Suicide among military personnel and veterans aged 18-35 years by county-16 statesexternal icon. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S197-S208. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.06.001.

Stone DM, Holland KM, Schiff LB, McIntosh WL. Mixed methods analysis of sex differences in life stressors of middle-aged suicidesexternal icon. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S209-S218. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.021.

Tian N, Cui W, Zack M, Kobau R, Fowler KA, Hesdorffer DC. Suicide among people with epilepsy: a population-based analysis of data from the U.S. National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 states, 2003-2011external icon. Epilepsy Behav 2016;61:210–7. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.05.028.

Fowler KA, Gladden RM, Vagi KJ, Barnes J, Frazier L. Increase in suicides associated with home eviction and foreclosure during the US housing crisis: findings from 16 National Violent Death Reporting System States, 2005-2010external icon. Am J Public Health 2015 Feb;105(2):311-6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301945.

Logan JE, Skopp NA, Reger MA, Gladden M, Smolenski DJ, Floyd CF, Gahm GA. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among active duty U.S. Army personnel versus U.S. civilians, 2005–2010external icon. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2015;45(1):65–77. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12111.

Karch DL, Logan J, McDaniel DD, Floyd CF, Vagi KJ. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10–17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005–2008external icon. J Adolesc Health 2013;53(1 Suppl):S51–3. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.028.

Logan J, Skopp NA, Karch D, Reger MA, Gahm GA. Characteristics of suicides among US army active duty personnel in 17 U.S. states from 2005 to 2007external icon. Am J Public Health 2012;102(S1):S40–4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300481.

Karch D. Sex differences in suicide incident characteristics and circumstances among older adults: surveillance data from the National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. states, 2007–2009external icon. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8(8):3479–95. doi: 10.3390/ijerph8083479.

Logan J, Hall J, Karch D. Suicide categories by patterns of known risk factors: a latent class analysisexternal icon. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68(9):935–41. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.85.

Ortega, LA, Karch D. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among women of reproductive age in 16 U.S. States, 2003–2007. J Womens Health 2010;19(1):5–7. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2009.1788.

Crosby AE, Espitia-Hardeman V, Hill HA, Ortega L, Clavel-Arcas C. Alcohol and suicide among racial/ethnic populations — 17 States, 2005–2006. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep. 58; 637-641.

Other topics

Fowler KA, Dahlberg LL, Haileyesus T, Gutierrez C, Bacon S. Childhood firearm injuries in the United Statesexternal icon. Pediatrics 2017;140(1). pii: e20163486. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3486.

Blair JM, Fowler KA, Jack SPD, Crosby AE. The National Violent Death Reporting System: overview and future directionsexternal icon. Inj Prev 2016;22:Suppl 1 i6-i11.

Crosby AE, Mercy JA, Houry D. The National Violent Death Reporting System: past, present, and futureexternal icon. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S169-S172. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.022.

Degutis LC, Sleet DA, Kohn M, Benjamin G, Cohen N, Iskander J. CDC Grand Rounds: Evidence-based injury prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014; 62(51-52): 1048-1050.

Logan JE, Walsh S, Patel N, Hall JE. Homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victimsexternal icon. Am J Health Behav 2013;37(4):531–42. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.37.4.11.

Logan J, Karch D, Crosby A. Reducing “unknown” data in violent death surveillance: a study of death certificates, coroner/medical examiner and police reports from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2004. Homicide Studies 2009;13(4);385–97. doi: 10.1177/1088767909348323.

Logan J, Hill H, Lynber-Black M, Crosby A, Karch D, Barnes J, Lubell K. Characteristics of perpetrators in homicide-followed-by-suicide Incidents: National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. states, 2003–2005external icon. Am J Epi 2008;168(9):1056–64. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn213.


Frankenfeld CL, Leslie TF. Descriptive epidemiology of homicides with victim and suspect race or Hispanic ethnicity discordance in the United States: analysis of National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) 2005-2015. Journal of interpersonal violence. 2019 Jul 9:0886260519861656.

DeBois, K. A., Evans, S. D., & Chatfield, S. L. (2019). Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Long-Term Care: Analysis of Structured and Unstructured Data From the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2016. Journal of Applied Gerontology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464819863926external icon

Hunter AA, DiVietro S, Schwab-Reese L, Riffon M. An epidemiologic examination of perpetrators of fatal child maltreatment using the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Journal of interpersonal violence. 2019 Jun 11:0886260519851787.

Gollub EL, Gardner M. Firearm legislation and firearm use in female intimate partner homicide using National Violent Death Reporting System data. Preventive medicine. 2019 Jan 1;118:216-9.

Abolarin J, McLafferty L, Carmichael H, Velopulos CG. Family can hurt you the most: examining perpetrators in multiple casualty events. Journal of surgical research. 2019 Oct 1;242:172-6.

Carmichael H, Steward L, Peltz ED, Wright FL, Velopulos CG. Preventable death and interpersonal violence in the United States: who can be saved?. Journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2019 Jun 21.

Carmichael H, Steward L, Velopulos CG. It doesn’t just happen to “Other” people–An exploration of occupation and education level of women who die from intimate partner violence. The American Journal of Surgery. 2019 Jul 18.

Adhia A, Austin SB, Fitzmaurice GM, Hemenway D. The Role of Intimate Partner Violence in Homicides of Children Aged 2–14 Years. American journal of preventive medicine. 2019 Jan 1;56(1):38-46.

Lira MC, Xuan Z, Coleman SM, Swahn MH, Heeren TC, Naimi TS. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol Involvement in Intimate Partner Homicide in the US. American journal of preventive medicine. 2019 Jun 22.

Velopulos CG, Carmichael H, Zakrison TL, Crandall M. Comparison of male and female victims of intimate partner homicide and bidirectionality—an analysis of the national violent death reporting system. Journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2019 Aug 1;87(2):331-6.

Stansfield R, Semenza D. Licensed firearm dealer availability and intimate partner homicide: a multilevel analysis in sixteen states. Preventive medicine. 2019 May 29.

Sivaraman JJ, Ranapurwala SI, Moracco KE, Marshall SW. Association of state firearm legislation with female intimate partner homicide. American journal of preventive medicine. 2019 Jan 1;56(1):125-33.

Adhia A, Kernic MA, Hemenway D, Vavilala MS, Rivara FP. Intimate partner homicide of adolescents. JAMA pediatrics. 2019 Jun 1;173(6):571-7.

Reckdenwald A, Szalewski A, Yohros A. Place, injury patterns, and female-victim intimate partner homicide. Violence Against Women. 2018 Sep 21:1077801218797467. doi: 10.1177/1077801218797467.

Hemenway D, Solnick SJ. The epidemiology of homicide perpetration by children. Inj Epidemiol 2017;4(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s40621-017-0102-2.

Naimi TS, Xuan Z, Coleman SM, Lira MC, Hadland SE, Cooper SE, Heeren TC, Swahn MH. Alcohol policies and alcohol-involved homicide victimization in the United States. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2017;78(5):781-788.

Barber C, Azrael D, Cohen A, Miller M, Thymes D, Wang DE, Hemenway D. Homicides by police: comparing counts from the National Violent Death Reporting System, Vital Statistics, and Supplementary Homicide Reports. Am J Public Health 2016;106(5):922–7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303074

Naimi TS, Xuan Z, Cooper SE, Coleman SM, Hadland SE, Swahn MH, Heeren TC. Alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in the United States. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016; 40(12):2614-2621. doi: 10.1111/acer.13230.

Beyer KM, Layde PM, Hamberger LK, Laud PW. Characteristics of the residential neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicide in urban versus rural settings. J Rural Health 2013;29(3):281–93. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2012.00448.x.

Jiang Y, Lyons D, Northup JB, Hilliard D, Foss K, Young S, Viner-Brown S. To improve homicide firearm information reporting – Rhode Island State Crime Laboratory. R I Med J (2013). 2018 May 1;101(4):21-24.

Hewes HA, Keenan HT, McDonnell WM, Dudley NC, Herman BE. Judicial outcomes of child abuse homicide. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011;165(10):918–21. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.151.

Davis, RL. Domestic violence-related deaths. J Aggress Confl Peace Res 2010;2(2):44–52. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5042/jacpr.2010.0141

Madkour AS, Martin SL, Halpern CT, Schoenbach VJ. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004–2006. Violence Vict 2010;25(3):363–77.

Fujiwara T, Barber C, Schaechter J, Hemenway D. Characteristics of infant homicides: findings from a U.S. multisite reporting system. Pediatrics 2009;124(2):e210-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-3675.

Martin SL, Macy RJ, Sullivan K, Magee ML. Pregnancy-associated violent deaths: the role of intimate partner violence. Trauma Violence Abuse 2007;8(2):135–48.


Hanlon TJ, Barber C, Azrael D, Miller M. Type of Firearm Used in Suicides: Findings From 13 States in the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005–2015. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2019 Jun 18.

Davidson JE, Proudfoot J, Lee K, Zisook S. Nurse suicide in the United States: Analysis of the Center for Disease Control 2014 National Violent Death Reporting System dataset. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2019 Jun 8.

Tian N, Zack MM, Hesdorffer DC. Timing of suicide in people with epilepsy: A population-based study from 18 states of the United States, 2003–2014. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2019 Aug 2:106421.

Mintz S, Jamison E, Bol K. Suicide among health care practitioners and technicians in Colorado: an epidemiological study. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior. 2019 Apr;49(2):455-65.

Choi N, DiNitto D, Marti CN, Choi B. Poisoning deaths among late-middle aged and older adults: comparison between suicides and deaths of undetermined intent. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 1;27(3):S135-6.

Horwitz AG, Smith DL, Held P, Zalta AK. Characteristics of veteran and civilian suicide decedents: a sex-stratified analysis. American journal of preventive medicine. 2019 May 1;56(5):e163-8.

Jordan JT, McNiel DE. Characteristics of persons who die on their first suicide attempt: results from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Psychological medicine. 2019 Jun 20:1-8.

Ream GL. What’s unique about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and young adult suicides? Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2019 May 1;64(5):602-7.

McCarthy MS, Hoffmire C, Brenner LA, Nazem S. Sleep and timing of death by suicide among US Veterans 2006–2015: analysis of the American Time Use Survey and the National Violent Death Reporting System. Sleep. 2019 Jun 10.

Choi NG, Marti CN, DiNitto DM, Choi BY. Suicides and deaths of undetermined intent by poisoning: reexamination of classification differences by race/ethnicity and state. Archives of suicide research. 2019 Apr 30:1-8.

Choi NG, Marti CN, DiNitto DM. Changes in post-mortem marijuana-positive toxicologies among youth suicide decedents, 2005–2015. Children and Youth Services Review. 2019 May 1;100:461-7.

Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN. Suicide decedents in correctional settings: mental health treatment for suicidal ideation, plans, and/or attempts. Journal of correctional health care. 2019 Jan;25(1):70-83.

Adu A, Brown SV, Asaolu I, Sanderson W. Understanding Suicide in Pregnant and Postpartum Women, Using the National Violent Death Reporting System Data: Are There Differences in Rural and Urban Status?. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2019 May 7;9(5):547-65.

Roberts K, Miller M, Azrael D. Honor-Related Suicide in the United States: A Study of National Violent Death Reporting System Data. Archives of suicide research. 2019 Jan 2;23(1):34-46.

Nazarov O, Guan J, Chihuri S, Li G. Research utility of the National Violent Death Reporting System: a scoping review. Injury epidemiology. 2019 Dec;6(1):18.

Witte TK, Spitzer EG, Edwards N, Fowler KA, Nett RJ. Suicides and deaths of undetermined intent among veterinary professionals from 2003 through 2014. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2019 Sep 1;255(5):595-608.

Ruch DA, Sheftall AH, Schlagbaum P, Fontanella CA, Campo JV, Bridge JA. Characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide among incarcerated youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2019 May 1;58(5):514-24.

Mezuk B, Ko TM, Kalesnikava VA, Jurgens D. Suicide among older adults living in or transitioning to residential long-term care, 2003 to 2015. JAMA network open. 2019 Jun 5;2(6):e195627-.

Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Sagna AO, Marti CN. Older women who died by suicide: suicide means, sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors, and other precipitating circumstances. Int Psychogeriatr. 2018:1-10.

Mintz S Jamison E, Bol K. Suicide among health care practitioners and technicians in Colorado: an epidemiological study. Suicide Life Threat Behav; 2018. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12449.

Williams SC, Schmaltz SP, Castro GM, Baker DW. Incidence and method of suicide in hospitals in the United States. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2018 Sep 3. pii: S1553-7250(18)30253-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2018.08.002.

Yau RK, Paschall MJ.  Epidemiology of asphyxiation suicides in the United States, 2005-2014. Injury Epidemiology 2018; 5:1. doi: 10.1186/s40621-017-0131-x

Boulifard DA, Pescosolido BA. Examining multi-level correlates of suicide by merging NVDRS and ACS Data. US Census Bur Cent Econ Stud Res Pap Sep 2017. pii: CES-WP-17-25

Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Conwell Y. Physical health problems as a late-life suicide precipitant: examination of coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement reports. Gerontologist 2017. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnx143.

Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Kaplan MS. Older suicide decedents: intent disclosure, mental and physical health, and suicide means. Am J Prev Med 2017;53(6):772-780.

Kerr W, Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, McFarland BH. Economic recession, alcohol, and suicide rates: comparative effects of poverty, foreclosure, and job loss. Am J Prev Med 2017;52(4):469-475. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.021.

Phillips JA, Hempstead K. Differences in U.S. suicide rates by educational attainment, 2000-2014. Am J Prev Med 2017;53(4):e123-e130. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.010.

Roberts K, Miller M, Azrael D. Honor-related suicide in the United States: a study of National Violent Death Reporting System data. Arch Suicide Res. 2017 Dec 27:1-13. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2017.1411299.

Wong YJ, Wang L, Li S, Liu H. Circumstances preceding the suicide of Asian Pacific Islander Americans and White Americans. Death Stud 2017;41(5):311-317. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2016.1275888.

Anestis MD. Prior suicide attempts are less common in suicide decedents who died by firearms relative to those who died by other means. J Affect Disord 2016;189:106-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.007.

Azrael D, Mukamal A, Cohen AP, Gunnell D, Barber C, Miller M. Identifying and tracking gas suicides in the U.S. using the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2012. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S219-S225. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.006.

Comiford AL, Sanderson WT, Chesnut L, Brown S. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky. J Inj Violence Res 2016;8(2):81-7. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v8i2.776.

Jamison EC, Bol KA. Previous suicide attempt and its association with method used in a suicide death. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S226-S233. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.023.

Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Kerr WC, McFarland BH. Heavy alcohol use among suicide decedents relative to a nonsuicide comparison group: gender-specific effects of economic contraction. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016;40(7):1501-6. doi: 10.1111/acer.13100

Perlis ML, Grandner MA, Brown GK, Basner M, Chakravorty S, Morales KH, Gehrman PR, Chaudhary NS, Thase ME, Dinges DF. Nocturnal wakefulness as a previously unrecognized risk factor for suicide. J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(6):e726-33. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m10131.

Stack S, Rockett IR. Are suicide note writers representative of all suicides? Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2016. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12320.

Caetano R, Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Conner K, McFarland BH, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Precipitating circumstances of suicide and alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic groups. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2015;39(8):1510–7. doi: 10.1111/acer.12788

Cerel J, Moore M, Brown MM, van de Venne J, Brown SL. Who leaves suicide notes? A six-year population-based study. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2015;45(3):326–34. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12131.

Giesbrecht N, Huguet N, Ogden L, Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Caetano R, Conner KR, Nolte KB. Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density. Addiction 2015;110(2):300–7. doi: 10.1111/add.12762.

Hempstead KA, Phillips JA. Rising suicide among adults aged 40–64 years: the role of job and financial circumstances. Am J Prev Med 2015;48(5):491–500. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.11.006.

Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Kerr WC, McFarland BH. Economic contraction, alcohol intoxication and suicide: analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev 2015;21(1):35–41. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041215.

Schiff LB, Holland KM, Stone DM, Logan J, Marshall KJ, Martell B, Bartholow B. Acute and chronic risk preceding suicidal crises among middle-aged men without known mental health and/or substance abuse problems. Crisis 2015;36(5):304-15. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000329.

Sheehan CM, Rogers RG, Boardman JD. Postmortem presence of drugs and method of violent suicide. J Drug Issues 2015 Jul;45(3):249-262.

Sheftall AH, Asti L, Horowitz LM, Felts A, Fontanella CA, Campo JV, Bridge JA. Suicide in elementary school-aged children and early adolescents. JAMA Pediatr 2015;169(7):673–677. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0465.

Bozzay ML, Liu RT, Kleiman EM. Gender and age differences in suicide mortality in the context of violent death: findings from a multi-state population-based surveillance system. Compr Psychiatry 2014;55(5):1077–84. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.03.017.

Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Kaplan MS, Conwell Y. Suicide means among decedents aged 50+ years, 2005-2014: Trends and associations with sociodemographic and precipitating factors. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017;25(12):1404-1414.

Conner KR, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, McFarland BH, Nolte KB, Kaplan MS. Acute use of alcohol and methods of suicide in a US national sample. Am J Public Health 2014;104(1):171–8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301352.

Huber RS, Coon H, Kim N, Renshaw PF, Kondo DG. Altitude is a risk factor for completed suicide in bipolar disorder. Med Hypotheses 2014;82(3):377–81. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.01.006.

Huguet N, Kaplan MS, McFarland BH. The effects of misclassification biases on veteran suicide rate estimates. Am J Public Health 2014;104(1):151–5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301450.

Kaplan MS, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Caetano R, Conner KR, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Use of alcohol before suicide in the United States. Ann Epidemiol 2014 Aug;24(8):588–92.e1–2. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.05.008.

Niederkrotenthaler T, Logan JE, Karch DL, Crosby A. Characteristics of U.S. suicide decedents in 2005–2010 who had received mental health treatment. Psychiatr Serv 2014;65(3):387–90. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300124.

Searles VB, Valley MA, Hedegaard H, Betz ME. Suicides in urban and rural counties in the United States, 2006–2008. Crisis 2014;35(1):18–26. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000224.

Caetano R, Kaplan MS, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Conner K, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide among United States ethnic/racial groups: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013;37(5):839-46. doi: 10.1111/acer.12038.

Gold KJ, Sen A, Schwenk TL. Details on suicide among US physicians: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2013;35(1):45–9. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.08.005.

Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N, Conner K, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: a gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev 2013;19(1):38–43. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040317.

Liu RT, Kraines MA, Puzia ME, Massing-Schaffer M, Kleiman EM. Sociodemographic predictors of suicide means in a population-based surveillance system: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting system. J Affect Disord 2013;151(2):449-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.023.

Stallones L, Doenges T, Dik BJ, Valley MA. Occupation and suicide: Colorado, 2004-2006. Am J Ind Med 2013;56(11):1290-5. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22228.

Gold KJ, Singh V, Marcus SM, Palladino CL. Mental health, substance use and intimate partner problems among pregnant and postpartum suicide victims in the National Violent Death Reporting System. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2012;34(2):139–45. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.09.017.

Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N, Valenstein M. Suicide risk and precipitating circumstances among young, middle-aged, and older male veterans. Am J Public Health 2012;102(Suppl 1):S131–7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300445.

Katz IR, McCarthy JF, Ignacio RV, Kemp J. Suicide among veterans in 16 states, 2005 to 2008: comparisons between utilizers and nonutilizers of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services based on data from the National Death Index, the National Violent Death Reporting System, and VHA administrative records. Am J Public Health 2012;102(Suppl 1):S105–10. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300503.

Manion T, Akinyemi A, Nooraddini I, Haile E. A comparison of suicide characteristics and precipitating circumstances by age group among Maryland residents: data from the Maryland Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009. Suicidology online 2012;3:131–7.

Basham C, Denneson LM, Millet L, Shen X, Duckart J, Dobscha SK. Characteristics and VA health care utilization of U.S. veterans who completed suicide in Oregon between 2000 and 2005. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2011;41(3):287–96. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00028.x.

Betz ME, Krzyzaniak SM, Hedegaard H, Lowenstein SR. Completed suicides in Colorado: differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Suic Life Threat Behav 2011;41(4):445–52.

Betz ME, Valley MA, Lowenstein SR, Hedegaard H, Thomas D, Stallones L, Honigman B. Elevated suicide rates at high altitude: sociodemographic and health issues may be to blame. Suic Life Threat Behav 2011;41(5):562–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00054.x.

Kaplan M S, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Mandle JA. Factors associated with suicide by firearm among U.S. older adult men. Psychol Men Masc 2011;13(1):65–74. doi: 10.1037/a0023173.

Ward, BW, Shields RT, Cramer BR. Integrating medical examiner and police report data: can this improve our knowledge of the social circumstances surrounding suicide? Crisis 2011;32(3):160–8. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000075.

Wasserman I, Stack S. Race, urban context, and Russian roulette: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2006. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2011;41(1):33–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2010.00014.x.

Denneson LM, Basham C, Dickinson KC, Crutchfield MC, Millet L, Shen X, Dobscha SK. Suicide risk assessment and content of VA health care contacts before suicide completion by veterans in Oregon. Psychiatr Serv 2010;61:1192–7. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.61.12.1192.

Johnson RM, Barber C, Azrael D, Clark DE, Hemenway D. Who are the owners of firearms used in adolescent suicides? Suicide Life Threat Behav 2010;40(6):609–11. doi: 0.1521/suli.2010.40.6.609.

Krzyzaniak SM, Betz ME, Lowenstein SR, Hedegaard H. Suicide epidemiology in Colorado: comparison of Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations. Ann Emerg Med 2010;56(3):S54–5.

Styka AN, White DS, Zumwalt RE, Lathrop SL. Trends in adult suicides in New Mexico: utilizing data from the New Mexico Violent Death Reporting System. J Forensic Sci 2010;55(1):93–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01254.x.

Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N. Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev 2009;15(5):322–7. doi: 10.1136/ip.2008.021162.

Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N. Firearm suicide among veterans in the general population: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. J Trauma 2009;67(3):503–7. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181b36521

Rockett IR, Lian Y, Stack S, Ducatman AM, Wang S. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis. BMC Psychiatry 2009;9:10. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-9-10.

Wanta BT, Schlotthauer AE, Guse CE, Hargarten SW. The burden of suicide in Wisconsin’s older adult population. WMJ 2009;108(2):87–93.

Other topics

Mays VM, Cochran SD. Challenges and opportunities for modernizing the National Violent Death reporting system.

Schwab-Reese LM, Peek-Asa C. Factors contributing to homicide-suicide: differences between firearm and non-firearm deaths. J Behav Med. 2019 Aug;42(4):681-690. doi: 10.1007/s10865-019-00066-9. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Repp KK, Hawes E, Rees KJ, Lovato C, Knapp A, Stauffenberg M. Evaluation of a Novel Medicolegal Death Investigator–Based Suicide Surveillance System to the National Violent Death Reporting System. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology. 2019 Sep 1;40(3):227-31.

Conner A, Azrael D, Lyons VH, Barber C, Miller M. Validating the National Violent Death Reporting System as a Source of Data on Fatal Shootings of Civilians by Law Enforcement Officers. American journal of public health. 2019 Apr;109(4):578-84.

Nazarov O, Guan J, Chihuri S, Li G. Research utility of the National Violent Death Reporting System: a scoping review. Injury epidemiology. 2019 Dec;6(1):18.

Jiang Y, Ranney ML, Sullivan B, Hilliard D, Viner-Brown S, Alexander-Scott N. Can Statewide emergency department, hospital discharge, and Violent Death Reporting System data be used to monitor burden of firearm-related injury and death in Rhode Island? J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Mar 7. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000744.

Kaplan MS, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Huguet N, Kerr WC, McFarland BH, Nolte KB. The National Violent Death Reporting System: use of the Restricted Access Database and recommendations for the system’s improvement. Am J Prev Med 2017;53(1):130-133. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.043

McBride DL. Pediatric firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. J Pediatr Nurs 2017. pii: S0882-5963(17)30463-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2017.09.001.

Austin AE, Vladutiu CJ, Jones-Vessey KA, Norwood TS, Proescholdbell SK, Menard MK. Improved ascertainment of pregnancy-associated suicides and homicides in North Carolina. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S234–S240. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.04.023.

Patton CL, McNally MR, Fremouw WJ. Military versus civilian murder-suicide. J Interpers Violence 2017;32(17) 2566–2590.

Reckdenwald A, Simone P. Injury patterns for homicide followed by suicide by the relationship between victims and offenders. Homicide Studies 2016;21(2):1-22. doi: 10.1177/1088767916671350.

Hemenway D, Solnick SJ. Children and unintentional firearm death. Inj Epidemiol 2015;2(1):26.

Huguet N, Lewis-Laietmark C. Rates of homicide-followed-by-suicide among White, African American, and Hispanic men. Public Health 2015;129(3):280–2. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2014.11.008.

Huguet N, McFarland BH, Kaplan MS. A comparison of suicides and undetermined deaths by poisoning among women: an analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Arch Suicide Res 2015;19(2):190–201. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2014.915275.

Riley CL, Sarani B, Sullivan JA, Upperman JS, Kane-Gill SL, Bailey H. Critical violent injury in the United States: a review and call to action. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(11):2460–7. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001255.

Clark DE, Doolittle PC, Winchell RJ, Betensky RA. The effect of hospital care on early survival after penetrating trauma. Inj Epidemiol 2014;1(1):24.

Rockett IR, Smith GS, Caine ED, Kapusta ND, Hanzlick RL, Larkin GL, Naylor CP, Nolte KB, Miller TR, Putnam SL, De Leo D, Kleinig J, Stack S, Todd KH, Fraser DW. Confronting death from drug self-intoxication (DDSI): prevention through a better definition. Am J Public Health 2014;104(12):e49–55. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302244.

Barber C, Azrael D, Hemenway D. A truly national National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev 2013;19(4):225-6. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040817.

Bahraini NH, Gutierrez PM, Harwood JE, Huggins JA, Hedegaard H, Chase M, Brenner LA. The Colorado violent death reporting system: validity and utility of the veteran status variable. Public Health Rep 2012;127:304–9.

Clark DE, Qian J, Sihler KC, Hallagan LD, Betensky RA. The distribution of survival times after injury. World J Surg 2012;36(7):1562–70. doi: 10.1007/s00268-012-1549-5.

Huguet N, Kaplan MS, McFarland BH. Rates and correlates of undetermined deaths among African Americans: results from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2012;42(2):185–96. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2012.00081.x

Barber C, Hemenway D. Too many or too few unintentional firearm deaths in official U.S. mortality data? Accid Anal Prev 2011;43(3):724–31. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.10.018.

Palladino CL, Singh V, Campbell J, Flynn H, Gold KJ. Homicide and suicide during the perinatal period: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118(5):1056–63. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823294da.

Genovesi AL, Donaldson A, Morrison BL, Olson LM. Different perspectives: a comparison of newspaper information to official document sources for violent deaths. Accid Anal Prev 2010;42(2):445–51.

Hemenway D, Barber C, Miller M. Unintentional firearm deaths: a comparison of other-inflicted and self-inflicted shootings. Accid Anal Prev 2010;42(4):1184–8. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.01.008.

Warren-Gordon K, Byers BD, Brodt SJ, Wartak M, Biskupski B. Murder followed by suicide: a newspaper surveillance study using the New York Times Index. J Forensic Sci 2010;55(6):1592-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01473.x.

Dailey NJ, Norwood T, Moore ZS, Fleischauer AT, Proescholdbell S. Evaluation of the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System, 2009. N C Med J 2012;73(4):257–62.

Page last reviewed: November 7, 2019