NVDRS Data and Publications
NVDRS data are stored in an incident-based, relational database. Descriptive data can be accessed free of charge from NCIPC’s Web-based Injury Statistics and Query System (WISQARS). More detailed data from the NVDRS Restricted Access Database (RAD) is available by request for users meeting certain eligibility criteria.
WISQARS Violent Deaths (NVDRS) Module
WISQARS is an interactive query system that provides data on fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States. Any data user can access WISQARS online.
The NVDRS module in WISQARS provides descriptive information on violence-related deaths available from participating states. The query system provides incident counts as well as crude and age-adjusted death rates by manner of death and cause of injury. Also, queries can be tailored to include states, years, age ranges, sex, and racial or ethnic groups of interest. Visit WISQARS NVDRS online for more information.
NVDRS Restricted Access Database (RAD)
The NVDRS Restricted Access Database (RAD) is a de-identified, multi-state, case-level microdata set comprised of hundreds of unique variables. The database uses short narratives to describe the circumstances related to violent deaths, including descriptions from law enforcement and medical examiner or coroner investigative reports.
The RAD contains confidential information that could lead to accidental disclosure of the identity of suspects and victims. CDC protects these data by requiring users to meet certain eligibility requirements and to take steps necessary to ensure the security of data, preserve confidentiality, and prevent unauthorized access to these data.
Guidelines for RAD Proposals
At this time, there are no costs for accessing the NVDRS RAD. It is also important to note that CDC staff are unable to provide analytic or other technical assistance to recipients for the proposed research.
Eligibility to Apply for RAD
To request the NVDRS RAD, the primary investigator must meet all of the following criteria:
- Have a Ph.D., Dr. P.H., M.D., ScD, D.O., or other doctoral level degree
- Hold a research position or faculty appointment at his/her institution
- Home institution must be a research organization, government agency, or institution of higher education. This includes research foundations or grant-making organizations.
- Agreement to comply with NVDRS RAD security, confidentiality, and data protection requirements, as outlined during the review process
Local, county, and state government employees, regardless of degree or research position, are also eligible to apply for the NVDRS RAD. Eligible investigators must prepare and submit a proposal. The ability of the principal investigator to conduct the proposed analyses and to comply with NVDRS RAD security, confidentiality, and data protection requirements are considered during the proposal package review process.
Proposal Package and Submission
The 2-4 page proposal package must include the items listed below. Submit the package to NVDRS RAD at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Cover letter on official home institution letterhead
- Project title
- Abstract: max. 250 words summarizing the project
- Full personal identification, institutional affiliation, mailing addresses, phone, and email address of the person to be primarily responsible for care of the data and for compliance with the terms of the data sharing agreement
- Names of all other collaborators who will be accessing the RAD files under the requesting principal investigator’s supervision
- Source of funding for the proposed project, if applicable
- Background of study (max. 250 words):
- Key study questions or hypotheses
- Public health benefits. Requestors must provide evidence that there is a legitimate public health purpose that justifies the use of the data.
- Methods for the study (max. 700 words) including:
- Summary of the variables needed for the proposed research. A variable specifications sheet that lists available variables in the NVDRS will be provided prior to submitting the proposal and should be used for this purpose. This sheet with requested variables should be returned with the proposal. In addition to specifying the requested NVDRS variables, any data from other sources that might be merged with NVDRS data should be described. To obtain the NVDRS coding manual and other NVDRS related materials, please visit the NVDRS Technical Assistance page.
- Proposed analytic strategy (e.g., statistical analysis, data linkages).
- Data management plan, including description of the mechanisms that will be in place to secure the data, preserve confidentiality, and prevent unauthorized access. These mechanisms are to include the data storage plan, limitations on access to the data, technical security practices such as password protection, use of stand-alone computers, encryption, and procedures covering networked computers and servers. This section must also include a description of the destruction of all NVDRS RAD files, and all derived files, when the approved use of the data will have been completed (i.e., on the agreed upon date scheduled by the CDC). The destruction date is five years from the receipt of the data unless otherwise specified.
- Description of the anticipated products, reports, and publications to be derived from the data analyses (max. 250 words).
- The requestor must also include in the proposal package a completed and signed copy of the NVDRS Data Sharing Agreement (Note: All collaborators on the proposal must sign this agreement). The NVDRS Data Sharing Agreement form should be requested prior to submitting the proposal.
- If the proposal includes any potential linking of NVDRS data with another data source that contains personally identifiable information then a signed copy of approval from the institution’s IRB should be included.
The NVDRS RAD review committee consists of a panel of scientific and data analysis experts within CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
Upon receipt of the proposal package, a committee will review the submission to ensure it meets the requirements established to protect the confidentiality of the data. In each proposal, the review committee will look for the following criteria:
- Scientific and technical feasibility of the study
- Qualifications of all people who will have access to the data
- Consistency between requested data and study goals
- Description of any additional data that will be linked to NVDRS RAD data
- Anticipated publications or other dissemination of results
- Risk of disclosure of restricted information
- Protections in place to maintain confidentiality of the data
- A legitimate public health purpose will be served by use of the data
The committee reviews proposals as they are received, and typically responds within 3-4 weeks. An incomplete proposal package will be returned upon receipt. The review of complex projects that require extensive communication between NVDRS staff and the applicants may take longer to complete. When a proposal is approved, the principal investigator will be notified by email and will receive the data via FTP (file transfer protocol).
Investigators are permitted to conduct only those analyses that have received approval. Requests to add data years to an existing project that has been approved will be expedited; in this case, a committee review is not required. CDC reserves the right to deny or terminate any project at any time when it deems an investigator’s/researcher’s actions may compromise confidentiality or ethical standards of behavior in a research environment. Failure to comply will result in the cancellation of the research activity and exclusion from future research activities using the NVDRS RAD.
Contact the NVDRS RAD team at email@example.com for the following:
- Any questions and further information about the NVDRS RAD
- Request a copy of the NVDRS RAD data sharing agreement
- Request a copy of the NVDRS RAD variable specification sheet
- Submit the proposal package
NVDRS Journal Articles
Petrosky E, Blair JM, Betz CJ, Fowler KA, Jack SPD, Lyons BH. Racial and ethnic differences in homicides of adult women and the role of intimate partner violence – United States, 2003-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 21;66(28):741-746. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6628a1.
Blair JM, Fowler KA, Betz CJ, Baumgardner JL. Occupational homicides of law enforcement officers, 2003-2013: data from the National Violent Death Reporting SystemExternal. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S188-S196. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.019.
Crosby AE, Lyons BH. Assessing homicides by and of U.S. law-enforcement officersExternal. N Engl J Med 2016;20;375(16):1509-1511.
DeGue S, Fowler KA, Calkins C. Deaths due to use of lethal force by law enforcement: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 U.S. States, 2009-2012External. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S173-S187. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.027.
Smith SG, Fowler KA, Niolon PH. Intimate partner homicide and corollary victims in 16 states: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009. Am J Public Health 2014;104(3):461–6External. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301582.
Egley A, Logan J, McDaniel D. Gang homicides — five U.S. cities, 2003–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2012; 61: 46-51.
Karch D, Nunn KC. Characteristics of elderly and other vulnerable adult victims of homicide by a caregiver: National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. states, 2003–2007. J Interpers Violence 2011;26(1):137–57. doi: 10.1177/0886260510362890.
Logan J, Smith S, Stevens M. Homicides — United States, 1999–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rep; 60; 67-70.
Smith S, Basile K, Karch D. Sexual homicide and sexual violence-associated homicide: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Homicide Studies 2011;15(2):132–153. doi: 10.1177/1088767911406236.
Klevens J, Leeb RT. Child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5: findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System. Child Abuse Negl 2010;34(4):262–6. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.005.
Annor FB, Zwald ML, Wilkinson A, et al. Characteristics of and precipitating circumstances surrounding suicide among persons aged 10–17 years — Utah, 2011–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:329–332. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6711a.
Leavitt RA, Ertl A, Sheats K, Petrosky E, Ivey-Stephenson A, Fowler KA. Suicides among American Indian/Alaska Natives – National Violent Death Reporting System, 18 States, 2003-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):237-242. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6708a1.
Petrosky E, Harpaz R, Fowler KA, Bohm MK, Helmick CG, Yuan K, Betz CJ. Chronic pain among suicide decedents, 2003 to 2014: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting SystemExternal. Ann Intern Med 2018. doi: 10.7326/M18-0830.
Stone DM, Simon TR, Fowler KA, et al. Vital Signs: trends in state suicide rates — United States, 1999–2016 and circumstances contributing to suicide — 27 states, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:617–624. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6722a1.
Holland KM, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Logan JE, Leemis RW. Antecedents of suicide among youth aged 11-15: a multistate mixed methods analysisExternal. J Youth Adolesc 2017;46(7):1598-1610. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0610-3.
Logan JE, Fowler KA, Patel NP, Holland KM. Suicide among military personnel and veterans aged 18-35 years by county-16 statesExternal. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S197-S208. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.06.001.
Stone DM, Holland KM, Schiff LB, McIntosh WL. Mixed methods analysis of sex differences in life stressors of middle-aged suicidesExternal. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S209-S218. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.021.
Tian N, Cui W, Zack M, Kobau R, Fowler KA, Hesdorffer DC. Suicide among people with epilepsy: a population-based analysis of data from the U.S. National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 states, 2003-2011External. Epilepsy Behav 2016;61:210–7. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.05.028.
Fowler KA, Gladden RM, Vagi KJ, Barnes J, Frazier L. Increase in suicides associated with home eviction and foreclosure during the US housing crisis: findings from 16 National Violent Death Reporting System States, 2005-2010External. Am J Public Health 2015 Feb;105(2):311-6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301945.
Logan JE, Skopp NA, Reger MA, Gladden M, Smolenski DJ, Floyd CF, Gahm GA. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among active duty U.S. Army personnel versus U.S. civilians, 2005–2010External. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2015;45(1):65–77. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12111.
Karch DL, Logan J, McDaniel DD, Floyd CF, Vagi KJ. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10–17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005–2008External. J Adolesc Health 2013;53(1 Suppl):S51–3. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.028.
Logan J, Skopp NA, Karch D, Reger MA, Gahm GA. Characteristics of suicides among US army active duty personnel in 17 U.S. states from 2005 to 2007External. Am J Public Health 2012;102(S1):S40–4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300481.
Karch D. Sex differences in suicide incident characteristics and circumstances among older adults: surveillance data from the National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. states, 2007–2009External. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8(8):3479–95. doi: 10.3390/ijerph8083479.
Logan J, Hall J, Karch D. Suicide categories by patterns of known risk factors: a latent class analysisExternal. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68(9):935–41. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.85.
Ortega, LA, Karch D. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among women of reproductive age in 16 U.S. States, 2003–2007. J Womens Health 2010;19(1):5–7. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2009.1788.
Crosby AE, Espitia-Hardeman V, Hill HA, Ortega L, Clavel-Arcas C. Alcohol and suicide among racial/ethnic populations — 17 States, 2005–2006. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep. 58; 637-641.
Fowler KA, Dahlberg LL, Haileyesus T, Gutierrez C, Bacon S. Childhood firearm injuries in the United StatesExternal. Pediatrics 2017;140(1). pii: e20163486. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3486.
Blair JM, Fowler KA, Jack SPD, Crosby AE. The National Violent Death Reporting System: overview and future directionsExternal. Inj Prev 2016;22:Suppl 1 i6-i11.
Crosby AE, Mercy JA, Houry D. The National Violent Death Reporting System: past, present, and futureExternal. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S169-S172. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.022.
Logan JE, Walsh S, Patel N, Hall JE. Homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victimsExternal. Am J Health Behav 2013;37(4):531–42. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.37.4.11.
Logan J, Karch D, Crosby A. Reducing “unknown” data in violent death surveillance: a study of death certificates, coroner/medical examiner and police reports from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2004. Homicide Studies 2009;13(4);385–97. doi: 10.1177/1088767909348323.
Logan J, Hill H, Lynber-Black M, Crosby A, Karch D, Barnes J, Lubell K. Characteristics of perpetrators in homicide-followed-by-suicide Incidents: National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. states, 2003–2005External. Am J Epi 2008;168(9):1056–64. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn213.
Reckdenwald A, Szalewski A, Yohros A. Place, injury patterns, and female-victim intimate partner homicide. Violence Against Women. 2018 Sep 21:1077801218797467. doi: 10.1177/1077801218797467.
Hemenway D, Solnick SJ. The epidemiology of homicide perpetration by children. Inj Epidemiol 2017;4(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s40621-017-0102-2.
Naimi TS, Xuan Z, Coleman SM, Lira MC, Hadland SE, Cooper SE, Heeren TC, Swahn MH. Alcohol policies and alcohol-involved homicide victimization in the United States. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2017;78(5):781-788.
Barber C, Azrael D, Cohen A, Miller M, Thymes D, Wang DE, Hemenway D. Homicides by police: comparing counts from the National Violent Death Reporting System, Vital Statistics, and Supplementary Homicide Reports. Am J Public Health 2016;106(5):922–7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303074
Naimi TS, Xuan Z, Cooper SE, Coleman SM, Hadland SE, Swahn MH, Heeren TC. Alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in the United States. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016; 40(12):2614-2621. doi: 10.1111/acer.13230.
Beyer KM, Layde PM, Hamberger LK, Laud PW. Characteristics of the residential neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicide in urban versus rural settings. J Rural Health 2013;29(3):281–93. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2012.00448.x.
Jiang Y, Lyons D, Northup JB, Hilliard D, Foss K, Young S, Viner-Brown S. To improve homicide firearm information reporting – Rhode Island State Crime Laboratory. R I Med J (2013). 2018 May 1;101(4):21-24.
Hewes HA, Keenan HT, McDonnell WM, Dudley NC, Herman BE. Judicial outcomes of child abuse homicide. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011;165(10):918–21. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.151.
Davis, RL. Domestic violence-related deaths. J Aggress Confl Peace Res 2010;2(2):44–52. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5042/jacpr.2010.0141
Madkour AS, Martin SL, Halpern CT, Schoenbach VJ. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004–2006. Violence Vict 2010;25(3):363–77.
Fujiwara T, Barber C, Schaechter J, Hemenway D. Characteristics of infant homicides: findings from a U.S. multisite reporting system. Pediatrics 2009;124(2):e210-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-3675.
Martin SL, Macy RJ, Sullivan K, Magee ML. Pregnancy-associated violent deaths: the role of intimate partner violence. Trauma Violence Abuse 2007;8(2):135–48.
Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Sagna AO, Marti CN. Older women who died by suicide: suicide means, sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors, and other precipitating circumstances. Int Psychogeriatr. 2018:1-10.
Mintz S Jamison E, Bol K. Suicide among health care practitioners and technicians in Colorado: an epidemiological study. Suicide Life Threat Behav; 2018. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12449.
Williams SC, Schmaltz SP, Castro GM, Baker DW. Incidence and method of suicide in hospitals in the United States. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2018 Sep 3. pii: S1553-7250(18)30253-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2018.08.002.
Yau RK, Paschall MJ. Epidemiology of asphyxiation suicides in the United States, 2005-2014. Injury Epidemiology 2018; 5:1. doi: 10.1186/s40621-017-0131-x
Boulifard DA, Pescosolido BA. Examining multi-level correlates of suicide by merging NVDRS and ACS Data. US Census Bur Cent Econ Stud Res Pap Sep 2017. pii: CES-WP-17-25
Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Conwell Y. Physical health problems as a late-life suicide precipitant: examination of coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement reports. Gerontologist 2017. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnx143.
Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Kaplan MS. Older suicide decedents: intent disclosure, mental and physical health, and suicide means. Am J Prev Med 2017;53(6):772-780.
Kerr W, Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, McFarland BH. Economic recession, alcohol, and suicide rates: comparative effects of poverty, foreclosure, and job loss. Am J Prev Med 2017;52(4):469-475. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.021.
Phillips JA, Hempstead K. Differences in U.S. suicide rates by educational attainment, 2000-2014. Am J Prev Med 2017;53(4):e123-e130. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.010.
Roberts K, Miller M, Azrael D. Honor-related suicide in the United States: a study of National Violent Death Reporting System data. Arch Suicide Res. 2017 Dec 27:1-13. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2017.1411299.
Wong YJ, Wang L, Li S, Liu H. Circumstances preceding the suicide of Asian Pacific Islander Americans and White Americans. Death Stud 2017;41(5):311-317. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2016.1275888.
Anestis MD. Prior suicide attempts are less common in suicide decedents who died by firearms relative to those who died by other means. J Affect Disord 2016;189:106-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.007.
Azrael D, Mukamal A, Cohen AP, Gunnell D, Barber C, Miller M. Identifying and tracking gas suicides in the U.S. using the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2012. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S219-S225. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.006.
Comiford AL, Sanderson WT, Chesnut L, Brown S. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky. J Inj Violence Res 2016;8(2):81-7. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v8i2.776.
Jamison EC, Bol KA. Previous suicide attempt and its association with method used in a suicide death. Am J Prev Med 2016;51(5S3):S226-S233. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.023.
Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Kerr WC, McFarland BH. Heavy alcohol use among suicide decedents relative to a nonsuicide comparison group: gender-specific effects of economic contraction. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016;40(7):1501-6. doi: 10.1111/acer.13100
Perlis ML, Grandner MA, Brown GK, Basner M, Chakravorty S, Morales KH, Gehrman PR, Chaudhary NS, Thase ME, Dinges DF. Nocturnal wakefulness as a previously unrecognized risk factor for suicide. J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(6):e726-33. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m10131.
Stack S, Rockett IR. Are suicide note writers representative of all suicides? Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2016. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12320.
Caetano R, Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Conner K, McFarland BH, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Precipitating circumstances of suicide and alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic groups. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2015;39(8):1510–7. doi: 10.1111/acer.12788
Cerel J, Moore M, Brown MM, van de Venne J, Brown SL. Who leaves suicide notes? A six-year population-based study. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2015;45(3):326–34. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12131.
Giesbrecht N, Huguet N, Ogden L, Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Caetano R, Conner KR, Nolte KB. Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density. Addiction 2015;110(2):300–7. doi: 10.1111/add.12762.
Hempstead KA, Phillips JA. Rising suicide among adults aged 40–64 years: the role of job and financial circumstances. Am J Prev Med 2015;48(5):491–500. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.11.006.
Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Kerr WC, McFarland BH. Economic contraction, alcohol intoxication and suicide: analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev 2015;21(1):35–41. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041215.
Schiff LB, Holland KM, Stone DM, Logan J, Marshall KJ, Martell B, Bartholow B. Acute and chronic risk preceding suicidal crises among middle-aged men without known mental health and/or substance abuse problems. Crisis 2015;36(5):304-15. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000329.
Sheehan CM, Rogers RG, Boardman JD. Postmortem presence of drugs and method of violent suicide. J Drug Issues 2015 Jul;45(3):249-262.
Sheftall AH, Asti L, Horowitz LM, Felts A, Fontanella CA, Campo JV, Bridge JA. Suicide in elementary school-aged children and early adolescents. JAMA Pediatr 2015;169(7):673–677. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0465.
Bozzay ML, Liu RT, Kleiman EM. Gender and age differences in suicide mortality in the context of violent death: findings from a multi-state population-based surveillance system. Compr Psychiatry 2014;55(5):1077–84. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.03.017.
Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Kaplan MS, Conwell Y. Suicide means among decedents aged 50+ years, 2005-2014: Trends and associations with sociodemographic and precipitating factors. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017;25(12):1404-1414.
Conner KR, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, McFarland BH, Nolte KB, Kaplan MS. Acute use of alcohol and methods of suicide in a US national sample. Am J Public Health 2014;104(1):171–8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301352.
Huber RS, Coon H, Kim N, Renshaw PF, Kondo DG. Altitude is a risk factor for completed suicide in bipolar disorder. Med Hypotheses 2014;82(3):377–81. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.01.006.
Huguet N, Kaplan MS, McFarland BH. The effects of misclassification biases on veteran suicide rate estimates. Am J Public Health 2014;104(1):151–5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301450.
Kaplan MS, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Caetano R, Conner KR, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Use of alcohol before suicide in the United States. Ann Epidemiol 2014 Aug;24(8):588–92.e1–2. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.05.008.
Niederkrotenthaler T, Logan JE, Karch DL, Crosby A. Characteristics of U.S. suicide decedents in 2005–2010 who had received mental health treatment. Psychiatr Serv 2014;65(3):387–90. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300124.
Searles VB, Valley MA, Hedegaard H, Betz ME. Suicides in urban and rural counties in the United States, 2006–2008. Crisis 2014;35(1):18–26. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000224.
Caetano R, Kaplan MS, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Conner K, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide among United States ethnic/racial groups: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013;37(5):839-46. doi: 10.1111/acer.12038.
Gold KJ, Sen A, Schwenk TL. Details on suicide among US physicians: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2013;35(1):45–9. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.08.005.
Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N, Conner K, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Nolte KB. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: a gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev 2013;19(1):38–43. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040317.
Liu RT, Kraines MA, Puzia ME, Massing-Schaffer M, Kleiman EM. Sociodemographic predictors of suicide means in a population-based surveillance system: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting system. J Affect Disord 2013;151(2):449-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.023.
Stallones L, Doenges T, Dik BJ, Valley MA. Occupation and suicide: Colorado, 2004-2006. Am J Ind Med 2013;56(11):1290-5. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22228.
Gold KJ, Singh V, Marcus SM, Palladino CL. Mental health, substance use and intimate partner problems among pregnant and postpartum suicide victims in the National Violent Death Reporting System. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2012;34(2):139–45. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.09.017.
Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N, Valenstein M. Suicide risk and precipitating circumstances among young, middle-aged, and older male veterans. Am J Public Health 2012;102(Suppl 1):S131–7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300445.
Katz IR, McCarthy JF, Ignacio RV, Kemp J. Suicide among veterans in 16 states, 2005 to 2008: comparisons between utilizers and nonutilizers of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services based on data from the National Death Index, the National Violent Death Reporting System, and VHA administrative records. Am J Public Health 2012;102(Suppl 1):S105–10. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300503.
Manion T, Akinyemi A, Nooraddini I, Haile E. A comparison of suicide characteristics and precipitating circumstances by age group among Maryland residents: data from the Maryland Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009. Suicidology online 2012;3:131–7.
Basham C, Denneson LM, Millet L, Shen X, Duckart J, Dobscha SK. Characteristics and VA health care utilization of U.S. veterans who completed suicide in Oregon between 2000 and 2005. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2011;41(3):287–96. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00028.x.
Betz ME, Krzyzaniak SM, Hedegaard H, Lowenstein SR. Completed suicides in Colorado: differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Suic Life Threat Behav 2011;41(4):445–52.
Betz ME, Valley MA, Lowenstein SR, Hedegaard H, Thomas D, Stallones L, Honigman B. Elevated suicide rates at high altitude: sociodemographic and health issues may be to blame. Suic Life Threat Behav 2011;41(5):562–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00054.x.
Kaplan M S, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Mandle JA. Factors associated with suicide by firearm among U.S. older adult men. Psychol Men Masc 2011;13(1):65–74. doi: 10.1037/a0023173.
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