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Old World/New World Arenaviruses

Old World Arenaviruses
Virus, date isolatedNatural hostGeographic distributionNaturally occurring human diseaseHuman laboratory infections
LCM1, 1933Mus musculus (house mouse)Americas, EuropeUndifferentiated febrile illness, aseptic meningitis; rarely seriousCommon; usually mild, but 5 were fatal
Lassa2, 1969Mastomys sp. Multimammate ratWest Africa, imported cases in Europe, Japan, USALassa fever; mild to severe and fatal diseaseCommon; often severe
Mopeia3, 1977Mastomys natalensis Multimammate ratMozambique, ZimbabweUnknownNone; little experience
Mobala4, 1983Praomys sp. (soft-furred mouse)Central African RepublicUnknownNone; little experience
Ippy5, 1984Arvicanthis sp. (grass rats)Republic of South AfricaUnknownNone
Merino Walk6, 1985Myotomys unisulcatus sp. (Busk Karoo rat)Republic of South AfricaUnknownNone
Menekre7, 2005 (only sequence available)Hylomyscus sp. (African wood mouse)Ivory CoastUnknownNone
Gbagroube7, 2005 (only sequence available)Mus (Nannomys) setulosus (African pigmy mouse)Ivory CoastUnknownNone
Morogoro8, 2007 (only sequence available)Mastomys natalensis Multimammate ratTanzaniaUnknownNone
Kodoko9, 2007Mus (Nannomys) minutoides (savannah pygmy mouse)GuineaUnknownNone
Lujo10, 2008UnknownZambia, Republic of South AfricaFatal hemorrhagic feverNone
Lemniscomys11, 2008 (only sequence availableLemniscomys rosalia Multimammate ratTanzaniaUnknownNone
Mus minutoides11, 2008 (only sequence available)Mus minutoides (savannah pygmy mouse)TanzaniaUnknownNone
Luna12, 2009Mastomys natalensis Multimammate ratZambiaUnknownNone
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New World Arenaviruses
Virus, date isolatedNatural hostGeographic distributionNaturally occurring human diseaseHuman laboratory infections
Tacaribe13, 1956Artibeus sp. batsTrinidad, West IndiesUnknownOne suspected; moderately symptomatic
Junin14, 1958Calomys musculinus (drylands vesper mouse)ArgentinaArgentinian hemorrhagic feverCommon; often severe
Machupo15, 1963Calomys callosus (large vesper mouse)BoliviaBolivian hemorrhagic feverCommon; often severe
Cupixi16, 1965Oryzomys gaeldi (rice rat)BrazilUnknownNone detected
Amapari17,1965Neacomys guianae (Guiana Bristly mouse)BrazilUnknownNone detected
Parana18, 1970Oryzomys buccinatus (Paraguayan Rice Rat)ParaguayUnknownNone detected
Tamiami19, 1970Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)Florida, USAAntibodies detectedNone detected
Pichinde20, 1971Oryzomys albigularis (Tomes's Rice rat)ColombiaUnknownOccasional; mild to asymptomatic
Latino21, 1973Calomys callosus (large vesper mouse)BoliviaUnknownNone detected
Flexal22, 1977Oryzomys spp. (Rice rats)BrazilNone detectedOne recognized (severe)
Guanarito23, 1989Zygodontomys brevicauda (Short-tailed Cane mouse)VenezuelaVenezuelan hemorrhagic feverNone detected
Sabia24, 1993UnknownBrazilViral hemorrhagic feverTwo recognized (both severe)
Oliveros25, 1996Bolomys obscuris (Dark bolo mouse)ArgentinaUnknownNone detected
Whitewater Arroyo26, 1997Neotoma spp. (Wood rats)USA: New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, California, ColoradoUnknownNone detected
Pirital27, 1997Sigmodon alstoni (Alston's Cotton Rat)VenezuelaUnknownNone detected
Pampa28, 1997Bolomys sp.ArgentinaUnknownNone detected
Bear Canyon29, 1998Peromyscus californicus (California mouse), Neotoma macrotis (large-eared woodrat)USA: CaliforniaUnknownNone detected
Ocozocoautla de Espinosa30, 2000 (only sequence available)Peromyscus mexicanus (Mexican deer mouse)MexicoUnknownNone detected
Allpahuayo31, 2001Aecomys bicolor, (Bicolored Arboreal Rice Rat) Aecomys paricolaPeruUnknownNone detected
Tonto Creek32, 2001Neotoma albigula (white-throated woodrat)USA: ArizonaUnknownNone detected
Big Brushy Tank32, 2002Neotoma albigula (white-throated woodrat)USA: ArizonaUnknownNone detected
Real de Catorce33, 2005 (only sequence available)Neotoma leucodon (White-toothed Woodrat)MexicoUnknownNone detected
Catarina34, 2007Neotoma micropus (Southern Plains Woodrat)USA: TexasUnknownNone detected
Skinner Tank35, 2008Neotoma mexicana (Mexican woodrat)USA: ArizonaUnknownNone detected
Chapare36, 2008UnknownBoliviaSingle fatal hemorrhagic fever caseNone detected
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Old World

  1. Armstrong, C. and Lillie, R. D. Experimental lymphocytic choriomeningitis of monkeys and mice produced by a virus encountered in studies of the 1933 St. Louis encephalitis epidemic. Public Health Reports. 1934; 49:1019-1027.
  2. Buckley, Sonja M. and Casals, Jordi. Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man in West Africa. III. Isolation and characterization of the virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1970; 19:680-691.
  3. Wulff, Herta; McIntosh, Bruce M.; Hamner, Dale B., and Johnson, Karl M. Isolation of an arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus from Mastomys natalensis in south-east Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1977; 55:441-444.
  4. Gonzalez, Jean Paul; McCormick, Joseph B.; Saluzzo, Jean François; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Johnson, Karl M., and Georges, Alain J. An Arenavirus isolated from wild-caught rodents (Praomys species) in the Central African Republic. Intervirology. 1983; 19(2):105-112.
  5. Swanepoel, Robert; Leman, P. A.; Shepherd, Alasdair J.; Shepherd, S. P.; Kiley, Michael P., and McCormick, Joseph B. Identification of Ippy as a Lassa-fever-related virus. Lancet. 1985; i:639.
  6. Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Hui, Jeffrey; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Popov, Vsevolod; Briese, Thomas; Tesh, Robert, and Lipkin, W. Ian. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of Merino Walk virus, a novel arenavirus isolated in South Africa. Journal of General Virology. 2010; 91(5):1315-1324.
  7. Coulibaly-N'Golo, David; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi, Stephane Kan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rieger, Tony; Olschlager, Stephan; Dosso, Henri; Denys, Christiane; Ter Meulen, Jan; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal, and Gunther, Stephan. Novel arenavirus sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Cote d'Ivoire: implications for evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e20893.
  8. Gunther, Stephan; Hoofd, G.; Charrel, Remy; Roser, C; Becker-Ziaja, B.; Lloyd, G. raham; Sabuni, C.; Verhagen, Ron; van der Groen, Guido; Kennis, J.; Katakweba, A.; Machang'u, R.; Makundi, R., and Leirs, Herwig. Mopeia virus-related arenavirus in natal multimammate mice, Morogoro, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009; 15(12):2008-2012.
  9. Lecompte, E.; ter Meulen, J.; Emonet, S.; Daffis, S., and Charrel, R. N. Genetic identification of Kodoko virus, a novel arenavirus of the African pigmy mouse (Mus Nannomys minutoides) in West Africa. Virology. 2007; 364(1):178-183.
  10. Paweska, Janusz T.; Sewlall, Nivesh H.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Blumberg, Lucille H.; Hale, Martin J.; Lipkin, Ian; Weyer, Jacqueline; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; McMullan, Laura K.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Briese, Thomas; Mnyaluza, Joy; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Mukonka, Victor; Ching, Pamela; Duse, Adriano; Richards, Guy; de Jong, Gillian; Cohen, Cheryl; Ikalafeng, Bridget; Mugero, Charles; Asomugha, Chika; Molotle, Mirriam M.; Nteo, Dorothy M.; Misiani, Eunice; Swanepoel, Robert; Zaki, Sherif R., and members of the Outbreak Control and Investigation Teams. Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009; 15(10):1598-1602.
  11. Gouy de Bellocq, Joelle; Borremans, Benny; Katakweba, Abdul; Makundi, Rhodes; Baird, Stuart J.; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Gunther, Stephan, and Leirs, Herwig. Sympatric occurrence of 3 arenaviruses, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010; 16(4):692-695.
  12. Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron, and Sawa, Hirofumi. Novel arenavirus, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011; 17(10):1921-1924.
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New World

  1. Downs, Wilbur G.; Anderson, C. R.; Spence, L.; Aitken, T. H. G., and Greenhall, A. H. Tacaribe virus, a new agent isolated from Artibeus bats and mosquitoes in Trinidad, West Indies. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1963; 12(4):610-616.
  2. Parodi, Armando S.; Greenway, Daniel J.; Rugiero, Hector R.; Rivero, E.; Frigerio, Marcelo J.; De la Barrera, Juan M.; Mettler, Norma E.; Garzon, F.; Boxaca, Martha C.; Guerrero, Lucia B. de, and Nota, Nora R. Sobre la etiología del brote epidémico de Junín (Nota previa). El Dia Médico. 1958; 30(62):2300-2302.
  3. Johnson, Karl M.; Wiebenga, Ned H.; Mackenzie, Ronald B.; Kuns, Merle L.; Tauraso, N. M.; Shelokov, Alexis; Webb, Patricia A.; Justines, Gustavo J., and Beye, Henry K. Virus isolations from human cases of hemorrhagic fever in Bolivia. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1965; 118:113-118.
  4. Charrel, Remi; Feldmann, Heinz; Fulhorst, Charles; Khelifa, Riad; Chesse, Reine, and de Lamballerie, Xavier. Phylogeny of New World arenaviruses based on the complete coding sequences of the small genomic segment identified an evolutionary lineage produced by intrasegmental recombination. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2002; 296(5):1118-1124.
  5. Pinheiro, Francisco P.; Shope, Robert E.; Paes de Andrade, Amelia H.; Bensabath, Gilberta; Cacios, George V., and Casals, Jordi. Amapari, a new arenavirus of the Tacaribe group from rodents and mites of Amapa territory, Brazil. Proceeding of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1966; 122:531-535.
  6. Webb, Patricia A.; Johnson, Karl M.; Hibbs, J. B., and Kuns, M. L. Parana, a new Tacaribe complex virus from Paraguay. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch. 1970; 32(4):379-388.
  7. Calisher, Charles H.; Tzianabos, Ted; Lord, R. D., and Coleman, P. H. Tamiami virus, a new member of the Tacaribe group. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1970; 19(3):520-526.
  8. Trapido, Harold and San Martin, Carlos. Pichindé virus, a new virus of the Tacaribe group from Colombia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1971; 20(4):631-641.
  9. Webb, Patricia A.; Johnson, Karl M.; Peters, Clarence J., and Justines, Gustavo J. Behavior of Machupo and Latino viruses in Calomys callosus from two geographic areas of Bolivia. In: Lehman-Grube, Fritz, ed. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and other Arenaviruses; Heinrich-Pette-Institut für Experimentelle Virologie und Immunologie, Universität Hamburg. Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag; 1973: 313-322.
  10. Pinheiro, Francisco P.; Woodall, Jack P.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A., and Travassos da Rosa, Jorge F. Studies on arenaviruses in Brazil. Medicina (Buenos Aires). 1977; 37(suppl 3):175-181.
  11. Salas, Rosalba; De Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B.; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Shope, Robert E.; Betaucourt, Adelfa; Godoy, Oswaldo; Bruzual, Rafael; Pacheco, Maria E.; Ramos, Bricio; Taibo, Maria E.; Tamayo, Jorge Garcia; James, Edgar; Vasquez, Clovis; Araoz, Francisco, and Querales, Jesus. Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. Lancet. 1991; 338:1033-1036.
  12. Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux M.; Nassar, Elza S.; Burattini, Marcelo N.; Terezinha Madia de Souza, Luiza; Ferreira, Ivani B.; Rocco, Iray M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Pinheiro, Francisco P.; Leduc, James.; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Jahrling, Peter B., and Tesh, Robert B. New arenavirus isolated in Brazil. Lancet. 1994; 343(8894):391-392.
  13. Mills, James N.; Barrera-Oro, Julio G.; Bressler, David S.; Childs, James E.; Tesh, Robert B.; Smith, Jonathan F.; Enria, Delia A.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; McKee, Kelly T.; Bowen, Michael D.; Peters, Clarence J., and Jahrling, Peter B. Characterization of Oliveros virus, a new member of the Tacaribe complex (Arenaviridae, Arenavirus). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996; 54(4):399-404.
  14. Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bowen, Michael D.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Kosoy, Michael Y., and Peters, Clarence J. Isolation and characterization of Whitewater Arroyo virus, a novel North American arenavirus. Virology. 1996; 224(1):114-120.
  15. Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bowen, Michael D.; Salas, Rosa Alba; De Manzione, Nuris M. C.; Duno, Gloria; Utrera, Antonio; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Peters, Clarence J.; Nichol, Stuart T.; De Miller, Edith; Tovar, Duilia; Ramos, Bricio; Vasquez, Clovis, and Tesh, Robert B. Isolation and characterization of Pirital virus, a newly discovered South American arenavirus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1997; 56(5):548-553.
  16. Lozano, M. E.; Posik, D. M.; Albarino, C. G.; Schujman, G.; Ghiringhelli, P. D.; Calderon, G.; Sabattini, M., and Romanowski, V. Characterization of arenaviruses using a family-specific primer set for RT-PCR amplification and RFLP analysis - Its potential use for detection of uncharacterized arenaviruses. Virus Research. 1997; 49(1):79-89.
  17. Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bennet, Stephen G.; Milazzo, Mary L.; Murray Jr., Hugh L.; Webb Jr., James P.; Cajima, Maria N. B., and Bradley, Robert D. Bear Canyon virus: an arenavirus naturally associated with the california mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002; 8(7):717-721.
  18. Cajimat, Maria N.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Bradley, Robert D., and Fulhorst, Charles F. Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus and hemorrhagic Fever, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012; 18(3):401-405.
  19. Moncayo, Abelardo; Hice, Christine L.; Watts, Douglas M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Russell, Kevin L.; Calampa, Carlos; Gozalo, Alfonso; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Weaver, Scott C., and Tesh, Robert B. Allpahuayo virus, a newly recognized arenavirus (Arenaviridae) from arboreal rice rats (Oecomys bicolor and Oecomys paricola) in Northeastern Peru. Virology. 2001; 284:277-286.
  20. Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Mary N.; Haynie, Michelle L.; Abbott, Ken D.; Bradley, Robert D., and Fulhorst, Charles F. Diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (family Arenaviridae) naturally associated with the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula) in the southwestern United States. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2008; 8(4):523-540.
  21. Inizan, Catherine C.; Cajimat, Maria N.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Barragan-Gomez, Artemio; Bradley, Robert D., and Fulhorst, Charles F. Genetic evidence for a Tacaribe serocomplex virus, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010; 16(6):1007-1010.
  22. Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Bradley, Robert D., and Fulhorst, Charles F. Catarina virus, an arenaviral species principally associated with Neotoma micropus (southern plains woodrat) in Texas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007; 77(4):732-736.
  23. Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Borchert, Jeff N.; Abbott, Ken D.; Bradley, Robert D., and Fulhorst, Charles F. Diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (family Arenaviridae) naturally associated with the Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana). Virus Research. 2008; 133(2):211-217.
  24. Delgado, Simon; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Agudo, Roberto; Blair, Patrick J.; Vallejo, Efrain; Albarino, Cesar G.; Vargas, Jorge; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Olson, James G., and Nichol, Stuart T. Chapare Virus, a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in Bolivia. PLOS Pathogens. 2008; 4(4):e1000047.
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