Outbreak Resources

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups


Allwinn R, Doerr HW, Emmerich P, et al. Cross-reactivity in flavivirus serology: new implications of an old finding? Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 2002;190(4):199-202.

Alzahrani AG, Al Shaiban HM, Al Mazroa MA, et al. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans, Najran, Saudi Arabia. Emerging  Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(12):1882-1888.

Bhatt PN, Work TH, Varma VGR, Trapido H, et al. Isolation of Kyasanur forest disease virus from infected humans and monkeys of Shimoga district, Mysore State. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 1966;20:316-320.

Carletti F, Castilletti C, Di Caro A, et al. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(12):1979-1982.

Charrel RN, Zaki AM, Attoui H, et al. Complete coding sequence of the Alkhurma virus, a tick-borne flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in Saudi Arabia. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2001;287(2):455-461.

Charrel RN, Zaki AM, Fakeeh M, et al. Low diversity of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):683-688.

Charrel RN, Fagbo S, Moureau G, et al. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in Ornithodoros savignyi ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(1):153-155.

Charrel RN, de Lamballerie X, Zaki AM. Human cases of hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia due to a newly discovered flavivirus, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus. in: Lu Y, Essex M, Roberts B, eds. Emerging Infections in Asia. New York: Springer; 2008;pp. 179-192.

Dodd KA, Bird BH, Khristova ML, et al. Ancient Ancestry of KFDV and AHFV Revealed by Complete Genome Analyses of Viruses Isolated from Ticks and Mammalian Hosts. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2011;5(10):e1352.

Gunther G, Haglund M, Lindquist L, et al. Intrathecal IgM, IgA and IgG antibody response in tick-borne encephalitis. Long-term follow-up related to clinical course and outcome. Clinical and Diagnostic Virology. 1997;8(1):17-29.

Kuno G. Serodiagnosis of flaviviral infections and vaccinations in humans. Advances in Virus Research. 2003;61: 3–65.

Madani TA. Alkhumra Virus Infection, a New Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection. 2005;51(2):91-97.

Madani TA, Azhar EI, Abuelzein EME, et al. Alkhumra (Alkhurma) virus outbreak in Najran, Saudi Arabia: Epidemiological, clinical, and Laboratory characteristics. Journal of  Infection. 2011;62(1):67-76.

Madani TA, Abuelzein EE, Azhar EI, et al. Superiority of the buffy coat over serum or plasma for the detection of Alkhumra virus RNA using real time RT-PCR. Archives of Virology. 2012;157(5):819-823.

Mahdi M, Erickson BR, Comer JA, et al. Kyasanur Forest disease virus Alkhurma subtype in ticks, Najran Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerging  Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):945-947.

Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Francis C, et al. Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever: case report and infection control details. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 2005;62(1):37-39.

Memish ZA, Charrel RN, Zaki AM, et al. Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever–a viral haemorrhagic disease unique to the Arabian Peninsula. International  Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2010;36 Supplement 1:S53-S57.

Memish ZA, Albarrak A, Almazroa MA, et al. Seroprevalence of Alkhurma and Other Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(12):2316-2318.

Memish ZA, Fagbo SF, Assiri AM, et al. Alkhurma Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Proposed Guidelines for Detection, Prevention, and Control in Saudi Arabia. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(7):e1604.

Ravanini P, Hasu E, Huhtamo E, et al. Rhabdomyolysis and severe muscular weakness in a traveler diagnosed with Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus infection. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2011;52(3):254-256.

Zaki AM. Isolation of a flavivirus related to the tick-borne encephalitis complex from human cases in Saudi Arabia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1997;91(2):179-181.