Sleep Publications

CDC scientists conduct studies each year to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of sleep and sleep disorders. A variety of sleep-related publications authored or co-authored by CDC staff are available in this section.

Publications by Year

Ng AE, Adjaye-Gbewonyo D, Black LI. Regular bedtimes among children aged 5–17 years: United States, 2020. NCHS Data Brief, no 437. 2022; 437:1-8. Free full text article:

Adjaye-Gbewonyo D, Ng AE, Black LI. Sleep difficulties in adults: United States, 2020. NCHS Data Brief, no 436. 2022; 436:1-8. Free full text article:

Liu Y, Carlson SA, Wheaton AG, Greenlund KJ, Croft JB. Sleep disorder symptoms among adults in 8 states and the District of Columbia, 2017. Prev Chronic Dis 2021;18:210305. Free full text article:

Wheaton AG, Claussen AH. Short sleep duration among infants, children, and adolescents aged 4 months–17 years — United States, 2016–2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70:1315–1321. Free full text article:

Tian N, Wheaton AG, Zack M, Croft JB, Greenlund K. Sleep duration and quality among U.S. adults with epilepsy: National Health Interview Survey 2013, 2015, and 2017. Epilepsy Behav. 2021;122:108194. Abstract:

Okoro CA, Courtney-Long E, Cyrus AC, Zhao G, Wheaton AG. Self-reported short sleep duration among US adults by disability status and functional disability type: results from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Disabil Health J. 2020;13(3):100887. Abstract:

Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Edwards VJ, Xu F, Greenlund KJ, Croft JB. Short self-reported sleep duration among caregivers and non-caregivers in 2016. Sleep Health. 2020;6(5):651-656. Abstract:

Yang Q, Durmer JL, Wheaton AG, Jackson SL, Zhang Z. Sleep duration and excess heart age among US adults. Sleep Health. 2018;4(5):448-455. Abstract:

Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Croft JB, Xu F, Cunningham TJ, Greenlund KJ. Relationship between sleep duration and self-reported health-related quality of life among US adults with or without major chronic diseases, 2014. Sleep Health. 2018;4(3):265-272. Abstract:,fair%20health%20and%20frequent%20mental%20distress%20%28P%20%3C.001%29

Wheaton AG, Jones SE, Cooper AC, Croft JB. Short sleep duration among middle school and high school students — United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67:85–90. Free full text article:

Shockey TM, Wheaton AG. Short sleep duration by occupation group — 29 States, 2013–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:207–213. Free full text article:

Vahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. 2017;286:1-8. Accessed Oct 12, 2022. Free full text article:

Liu Y, Croft JB, Wheaton AG, et al. Clustering of five health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention among adults, United States, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016;13:160054. Free full text article:

Cunningham TJ, Wheaton AG, Ford ES, Croft JB. Racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported short sleep duration among US-born and foreign-born adults. Ethn Health. 2016;21(6):628-38. Abstract:

Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Croft JB. School start times, sleep, behavioral, health, and academic outcomes: a review of the literature. J Sch Health. 2016;86(5):363-81. Abstract:

Wheaton AG, Olsen EO, Miller GF, Croft JB. Sleep duration and injury-related risk behaviors among high school students — United States, 2007–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:337–341. Free full text article:

Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Cunningham TJ, Lu H, Croft JB. Prevalence of healthy sleep duration among adults — United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:137–141. Free full text article:

Nugent CN, Black LI. Sleep duration, quality of sleep, and use of sleep medication, by sex and family type, 2013–2014. NCHS Data Brief, no 230. 2016;230:1–8. Accessed October 5, 2020. Free full text article:

Cunningham TJ, Wheaton AG, Giles WH. The Association between psychological distress and self-reported sleep duration in a population-based sample of women and men. Sleep Disord. 2015;2015:172064. Abstract:

Cunningham TJ, Ford ES, Chapman DP, Liu Y, Croft JB. Independent and joint associations of race/ethnicity and educational attainment with sleep-related symptoms in a population-based US sample. Prev Med. 2015;77:99-105. Abstract:

Holt JB, Zhang X, Sizov N, Croft JB. Airport noise and self-reported sleep insufficiency, United States, 2008 and 2009. Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:E49. Free full text article:

Ford ES, Cunningham TJ, Giles WH, Croft JB. Trends in insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness among U.S. adults from 2002 to 2012. Sleep Med. 2015;16(3):372-8. Abstract:,to%2018.8%25%20%28relative%20increase%3A%20%2B8.0%25%2C%20P%20trend%20%3C0.001%29

Ford ES, Cunningham TJ, Croft JB. Trends in self-reported sleep duration among US adults from 1985 to 2012. Sleep. 2015;38(5):829-32. Abstract:

Chapman DP, Liu Y, McKnight-Eily LR, Croft JB, Holt JB, Balkin TJ, Giles WH. Daily insufficient sleep and active duty status. Mil Med. 2015;180(1):68-76. Abstract: