10 Essential Public Health Services

Key points

  • The 10 Essential Public Health Services (EPHS) describe the public health activities that all communities should undertake.
  • To achieve equity, the EPHS actively promote policies, systems, and overall community conditions that enable optimal health for all and seek to remove systemic and structural barriers that have resulted in health inequities.
10 Essential Public Health Services color wheel


For the past 25 years, the Essential Public Health Services (EPHS) have served as a well-recognized framework for carrying out the mission of public health.

The EPHS framework was originally released in 1994 and more recently updated in 2020. The revised version is intended to bring the framework in line with current and future public health practice.

10 Essential Public Health Services (Revised, 2020)

This image shows the revised 10 Essential Public Health Services Framework in a pinwheel with Equity at the center. The wheel is separated by three sections. Section one:'equity' at the center. 'Equity'at the center. The Framework organizes the essential services around three core public health functions: (1) Assessment. This includes 'assess and monitor population health along with investigate,' and 'investigate, diagnose, and address health hazards/root causes. Section two includes, policy development includes communicativ and root causes.' (2) Policy Development. This includes 'cCommunicate effectively to inform and educate, . Section three, assurance, includes enforce laws, link to/provide to care, assure competent workforce, and evaluate;' 's;' 'Strengthen, support, and mobilize communities and partnerships;' and two other policy development services. (3) Assurance. This includes 'eEnable equitable access;' 'bBuild a diverse and skilled workforce;' and two other assurance services.
The revised 10 Essential Public Health Services Framework.

The revised EPHS framework was released on September 9, 2020. It was a collaborative effort by the Public Health National Center for Innovations (PHNCI), now the PHAB Center for Innovation, the de Beaumont Foundation, and a task force of public health experts, leaders, and practitioners. The effort engaged the public health community in activities to inform the changes.

The task force of experts included CDC and other federal agencies that were instrumental in establishing and supporting the original EPHS framework. Details about the process to update the EPHS, along with other accompanying materials, can be found on the PHAB Center for Innovation website.


  1. Assess and monitor population health status, factors that influence health, and community needs and assets
  2. Investigate, diagnose, and address health problems and hazards affecting the population
  3. Communicate effectively to inform and educate people about health, factors that influence it, and how to improve it
  4. Strengthen, support, and mobilize communities and partnerships to improve health
  5. Create, champion, and implement policies, plans, and laws that impact health
  6. Utilize legal and regulatory actions designed to improve and protect the public’s health
  7. Assure an effective system that enables equitable access to the individual services and care needed to be healthy
  8. Build and support a diverse and skilled public health workforce
  9. Improve and innovate public health functions through ongoing evaluation, research, and continuous quality improvement
  10. Build and maintain a strong organizational infrastructure for public health


10 Essential Public Health Services – Full
Provides a detailed description of each Essential Public Health Service

10 Essential Public Health Services – One Pager
Provides a brief one-page summary of the 10 Essential Public Health Services

10 Essential Public Health Services – Graphics
Contains downloadable graphics for promotion

Examples of How the Social Determinants of Health Can Be Addressed Through the 10 Essential Public Health Services
Learn how the EPHS can incorporate interventions to modify social determinants of health—the conditions in the places where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age.

Environmental Public Health and the 10 Essential Services
Learn how environmental health program activities can help deliver the 10 Essential Public Health Services in communities and support public health accreditation.