Interim CDC Case Definition for Animal Cases of Monkeypox

Epidemiologic Criteria

  • Within 21 days of clinical sign appearance: animal had close contact with a probable or confirmed human or animal monkeypox case
    • Close contact includes petting, cuddling, hugging, kissing, licking, sharing sleeping areas, and sharing food

Clinical Criteria

  • Rash or poxvirus-like lesions (macular, papular, vesicular, or pustular; generalized or localized; discrete or confluent)

Other possible clinical signs:

  • Conjunctivitis with or without ocular secretion
  • Coryza (crusty nose) and/or nasal secretions
  • Cough
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Labored breathing
  • Bloating
  • Fever

Case Classification

Suspect Case

  • Meets the epidemiologic criteria, AND
  • Rash OR two or more other clinical signs

Probable Case

  • Meets the epidemiologic criteria, AND
  • Presence of anti-orthopox IgG antibodies by ELISA*

Confirmed Case

  • Isolation of Monkeypox virus in culture from a clinical specimen OR demonstration of presence of Monkeypox virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction testing or Next-Generation sequencing of a clinical specimen

* There is a lack of data regarding the timing of anti-orthopoxvirus IgG antibody production in most animal species, however this is generally thought to be detectable between 2-4 weeks post exposure and remain detectable for months or years.