Module 2C: Infrastructure to Accommodate Bicyclists

Community/Municipality:

                                                                                                                 
Please answer these questions based on the community / municipality selected.

Plans

The Plans referred to in this module are those written and adopted by a local or regional authority. Plans can stand alone (e.g., Bicycle Master Plan) or be part of a Comprehensive Plan (e.g., Master Plan, General Plan). “Plan” is capitalized to indicate that it is a document adopted by a local ore regional authority.

2C.1 Does the community address linking or connecting existing and planned bicycling networks through a Plan?

  • Yes, and the Plan was adopted 0-<5 years old
  • Yes, and the Plan was adopted 5-<10 years old
  • Yes, and the Plan was adopted 10 years or older
  • No → skip to #2C.3
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.3
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.3

2C.2 When was the Plan that addresses making connections between existing and/or planned bicycle networks last updated?

  • It is in the process of being updated now
  • Updated < 1 year ago
  • Updated 1- 5 years ago
  • Updated more than 5 year ago

2C.3 Does the community have a Plan focused specifically on bicyclists?

  • Yes, and the Plan was adopted 0–<5 years ago
  • Yes, and the Plan was adopted 5–<10 years ago
  • Yes, and the Plan was adopted 10 or more years ago
  • No → skip to #2C.6
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.6
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.6

2C.4 In the past year, about how often was this Plan consulted when making relevant decisions?

  • Always
  • Usually
  • Sometimes
  • Rarely
  • Never
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.5 In the past year, were any of the bicycling-oriented goals or priorities specified in this Plan accomplished?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.6 Goals

2C.6 Goals
Does the community have a goal to: Yes No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Increase bicycle travel (e.g., mode share)?
b. Lower bicycling fatalities and injuries?

 

The next question refers to health equity and health disparities. Health equity is when everyone has the opportunity to be as healthy as possible. Health disparities are particular types of health differences closely linked with social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health and/or a clean environment based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion.

2C.7 During the planning process for bicycle facilities, does local government or its consultants try to engage individuals experiencing greater obstacles to health or who may be hard to contact?

  • Yes → describe:                                                                                                                                                          
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

Policies

The Policies referred to in this module are those written and adopted by a local, regional, or state authority. Policies include local ordinances (such as zoning regulations, subdivision ordinances, street design guidelines, etc.) passed by local governing authorities, such as a city council or board of commissioners.

2C.8 Does the community address linking and connecting existing and planned bicycling networks through a policy?

  • Yes, and the policy is routinely enforced
  • Yes, but the policy is not routinely enforced
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.9 Are bicycle facilities considered when designing new roads or updating existing roads?

  • Yes
  • No → skip to #2C.12
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.12
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.12

2C.10 Decisions regarding bicycle facilities

2C.10 Decisions regarding bicycle facilities
When new roads are built or existing roads are updated, are any of the following considered when making decisions regarding bicycle facilities? Yes, always Yes, sometimes No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Speed limit on the road
b. Average daily traffic count on road
c. Number of lanes of the road
d. Pedestrian usage

2C.11 What other things does your community consider when making decisions regarding bicycle facilities when new roads are built or existing roads are updated?

 

 

2C.12 Does the community have low-speed shared streets that allow bicyclists to comfortably use the roadway?

  • Yes
  • No → skip to #2C.14
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.14
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.14

2C.13 Low-speed shared streets

2C.13 Low-speed shared streets
For low-speed shared streets, do the community’s policies: Required Suggested No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Specify both peak-hour volume and off-peak speed?
b. Set a 10 mph target speed or less?
c. Manage motor vehicle speeds (such as by using speed humps, traffic circles, etc.)?
d. Reduce motor vehicle volume?
e. Use time-of-day analysis to match regulations to demand (e.g., school zone speed limit changes, reversible lane flow)?

 

The next questions ask about bicycle boulevards, which are low-stress shared roadway bicycle facilities designed to offer priority for bicyclists operating within roadways shared with motor vehicle traffic.

2C.14 Does the community have bicycle boulevards?

  • Yes
  • No → skip to #2C.16
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.16
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.16

2C.15 Bicycle boulevards

2C.15 Bicycle boulevards
For bicycle boulevards, do the community’s policies: Required Suggested No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Specify both peak-hour volume and off-peak speed?
b. Set a target speed at or below 25 mph for vehicles?
c. Manage motor vehicle speeds (such as by using speed humps, traffic circles, etc.)?
d. Reduce motor vehicle volume?
e. Use time-of-day analysis to match regulations to demand?

 

The next questions ask about conventional and buffered bicycle lanes. Conventional bike lanes are an exclusive space for bicyclists on the street marked by signage and pavement markings. Buffered bicycle lanes are on street bicycle lanes separated from the motor vehicle travel lane and/or parking by a designated buffer space.

2C.16 Does the community have conventional and/or buffered bicycle lanes?

  • Yes, the community has both conventional and buffered bicycle lanes.
  •  No, the community has conventional bicycle lanes only.
  • No, the community has buffered bicycle lanes only.
  • No, the community does not have conventional or buffered bicycle lanes. → skip to #2C.18
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.18
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.18

2C.17 Conventional and buffered bicycle lanes

2C.17 Conventional and buffered bicycle lanes
For conventional and buffered bicycle lanes, do the community’s policies: Required Suggested No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Set target speeds at or below 25 mph?
b. Discourage motor vehicle through- movement to reduce volumes?
c. Reduce curbside conflicts with other vehicles?
d. Address intersection conflicts with other vehicles?
e. Increase buffer distance when appropriate?

 

The next questions ask about protected bicycle lanes. Protected bicycle lanes are bike lanes that use a combination of horizontal separation (e.g., buffer distance) and vertical separation (e.g., curbs, parked cars). Protected bicycle lanes may also be referred to as separated bicycle lanes or cycle tracks.

2C.18 Does the community have protected bicycle lanes?

  • Yes
  • No → skip to #2C.20
  • Not applicable → skip to #2C.20
  • Don’t know → skip to #2C.20

2C.19 Protected bicycle lanes

2C.19 Protected bicycle lanes
For protected bicycle lanes, do the community’s policies: Required Suggested No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Build protected bicycle lanes where motor vehicle speed consistently exceeds 25 mph?
b. Manage intersection and curbside conflicts with other vehicles?
c. Reduce speeds through operational strategies (e.g., speed reduction, signalization, proactive curbside management)?
d. Retrofit travel lane to a protected bicycle lane on streets with multiple lanes in both directions?
e. Reverse the position of the parking and the bicycle lane to create physical separation between the bicycle and motor vehicle traffic on streets with parking with appropriate buffers for opening car doors?
f. Add vertical separation elements/protection on streets without parking?
g. Retrofit conventional or buffered lanes to protected lanes?

2C.20 In the community, are there standards established for bicycle lane widths?

  • Yes, and they go beyond minimum criteria*
  • Yes, and they meet minimum criteria*
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.21 In the community, are there standards established for separation of bicycle lanes from motorized vehicle lanes, such as those based on vehicle speeds and traffic volume?

  • Yes, and they go beyond minimum criteria*
  • Yes, and they meet minimum criteria*
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

*Criteria such as guidelines for bicycle lanes from NACTO (National Association of City Transportation Officials)

2C.22 Does the community have policies that incentivize developers to incorporate bicycle amenities (e.g., covered bicycle parking) on site?

  • Yes → describe:________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

Environment

The following questions ask about the built environment infrastructure in the community.

2C.23 Are the following bicycle infrastructure/amenities currently available in the community?

a. Low-speed shared streets

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

b. Bicycle boulevards

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

c. Buffered bicycle lanes

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

d. Conventional bicycle lanes

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

e. Protected bicycle lanes

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

f. Shared-use paths

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

g. Signed bicycle routes

  • Linear miles__________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

h. Signage such as “Share the Road,” “Bicyclists May Use Full Lane”

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

i. Bicycle parking

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

j. Bicycle share program

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

k. Community-produced map of bicycle infrastructure and amenities (not including web-based maps such as Google Maps)

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

l. Free helmets

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

The next question asks about the process the community uses to main on-street bicycle infrastructure. This includes routine maintenance like street sweeping, as well as filling potholes or repainting lanes.

2C.24 For on-street bicycle infrastructure, does the community maintain this infrastructure through

a. A scheduled process?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

b. Routine inspections?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

c. At citizen’s request?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

d. Property owners who are responsible for bicycle facility maintenance?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

e. Other? Please describe. __________________________________________________________________________________________

2C.25 Maintenance schedule prioritization

2C.25 Maintenance schedule prioritization
Does the community’s maintenance program include a schedule that prioritizes the following work for on- street bicycle infrastructure over vehicle only infrastructure? Yes No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Keep bicycle infrastructure clean and clear of snow, debris, vegetation, etc.
b. Ensure sewer/storm grates are bicycle- friendly (e.g., the metal surfaces are roughened to prevent skidding and that bicycle wheels cannot get caught in the grates)
c. Ensure street shoulders, transition areas between streets and bridges, areas around grates, and surfaces between streets and gutters are free of potholes
d. Routinely repaint bicycle lanes
e. Maintaining protected bike lanes (e.g., replacing downed plastic posts)

2C.26 Are trainings for bicyclists (e.g., youth bicycle education, adult bicycle education) provided by community organizations or government agencies?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.27 In the last 5 years, has the community removed a bicycle facility?

  • Yes → describe:_______________________________________________________________________________________________
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.28 Data collection

2C.28 Data collection
Does the community collect the following types of data related to bicycling? Yes No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Bicyclist behavior
b. Bicycle infrastructure
c. Bicycle injuries

2C.29 What other type of data related to bicycling does the community collect?

 

 

2C.30 Does the community routinely count bicyclists on the roadway and bike lanes?

  • Yes – Manual counting
  • Yes – Automated counting (e.g., infrared, video)
  • Yes – Both manual and automated counting
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.31 Does the community use the data collected for planning and implementation purposes?

  • Yes → describe:_______________________________________________________________________________________________
  • No
  • Not applicable – no data are collected
  • Don’t know

2C.32 Does the community use the data collected to improve health equity and reduce health disparities?

  • Yes → describe:_______________________________________________________________________________________________
  • No
  • Not applicable – no data are collected
  • Don’t know

Resources

The following questions ask about plans, policies, and environments that support bicycling.

2C.33 Funding sources

2C.33 Funding sources
Does the community have identified funding sources to: Yes No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Improve infrastructure to accommodate bicycling?
b. Maintain and repair bicycle facilities?
c. Provide bicycle parking to local businesses?

2C.34 What percent of the community’s total local annual transportation funding was invested in bicycle projects in the last 12 months?

  • __________%
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.35 Does the community have a dedicated staff person to implement bicycle-related policies and plans?

  • Yes, full time
  • Yes, part time or with other job duties
  • No
  • Not applicable
  • Don’t know

2C.36 Does the community have a group tasked with advising on bicycle-related policies and plans?

  • Yes
  • No → End of Module 2-Section C
  • Not applicable → End of Module 2-Section C
  • Don’t know → End of Module 2-Section C

2C.37 Group tasked with advising on bicycle-related policies and plans

2C.37 Group tasked with advising on bicycle-related policies and plans
Does the group: Yes No Not applicable Don’t know
a. Exist as a stand-alone body?
b. Meet at least quarterly?
c. Have a public health representative?
d. Have a planning and/or transportation representative?
e. Have paid staff support to coordinate the meetings?
f. Have a budget?
g. Conduct assessments of bicycle facilities in the community (e.g., quality assessment, mapping of facilities)?
h. Address equity?
i. Have representation by residents most impacted by poor health outcomes in the community?
j. Have a long-term strategic or sustainability plan?
k. Include elected officials?
l. Have a representative from a bicycle stakeholder group?
m. Conduct an evaluation to assess progress toward meeting goals/ objectives?
Terms and Definitions

Bicycle boulevards: A low-stress shared roadway bicycle facility designed to offer priority for bicyclists operating within a roadway shared with motor vehicle traffic.

Bicycle facility: A general transportation term to describe improvements and provisions to accommodate or encourage bicycling, including parking and storage facilities, and shared roadways no specifically designated for bicycle use.

Bicycle lanes: A portion of the roadway of designated by striping, signage, pavement markings, or physical barriers for the preferential or exclusive use of bicyclists. This includes sharrows, buffered bicycle lanes, conventional bicycle lanes, and protected bicycle lanes.

Buffered bicycle lanes: On street bicycle lane separated from the motor vehicle travel lane and/or parking lane through a designated buffer space.

Buffer distance: The amount of space between the bicycle lane and the adjacent motor vehicle travel lane and/or parking lane. It is usually separated by two solid white lines and may have diagonal hatching or chevron markings.

Conventional bike lane: A space specifically for bicyclists delineated through the use of pavement markings and signage. It is usually adjacent to motor vehicle travel lanes and flows in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic.

Health disparities: Particular types of health differences closely linked with social, economic, and/ or environmental disadvantage. Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health and/or a clean environment based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion. Health equity When everyone has the opportunity to be as healthy as possible.

Low-speed shared streets: A street environment where pedestrian activity is high and vehicle volumes are low or discouraged. They are usually local-access, narrow streets without curbs and sidewalks, and vehicles are slowed by placing trees, planters, parking areas and other obstacles in the street. Motorists are encouraged to travel at much slower speeds.

Protected bicycle lanes: On street bicycle lane separated from the motor vehicle travel lane and/or parking lane through a physical barrier, such as a curb, planter, or posts.

Shared lane markings (sharrows) A painted marking of a bicycle on the pavement to help convey to motorists and bicyclists that they must share the road on which they are operating.

Wide paved shoulders: Ridable surface ≥4 feet, and minimum clear path of ≥4 feet between rumble strips.