1 Wenger, Etienne, McDermott, Richard, Snyder, William M. Cultivating Communities of Practice. Harvard Business School Press. Boston, MA. 2002.
2 Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1998.
3 Wenger E. Communities of Practice: In Lesser EL, Fontaine MA, Slusher JA. Eds. The Key to Knowledge Strategy. Knowledge and Communities. Wobrurn (MA): Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000.
4 Snyder WM, Wenger E, de Sousa Briggs X. Communities of practice in government: Leveraging knowledge for performance. The Public Manager 2003; 32(4)17–22.
5 Israel BA, Schulz AJ, van Olphen J. Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 1998, 19:173–202.
6 Saint-Onge H. Wallace D. Leveraging Communities of Practice for Strategic Advantage. WoBrurn (MA): Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
7 Snyder WM, de Sousa Briggs X. Communities of Practice: A New Tool for Government Managers. IMB Center for the Business of Government. November 2003
8 Wagenaar S, Hulsebosch J. From “a meeting” to “a learning community” Community of Practice theory-informed facilitation of an inter-organizational community of practice: the case of the e-collaboration learning community. Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal, 2008, 9:4–25.
9 Wenger, Etienne. Knowledge management as a doughnut: Shaping your knowledge strategy through communities of practice. Ivey Business Journal, Improving the Practice of Knowledge Management. January/February 2004.
10 Strock J. Hill PA. Knowledge diffusion through “strategic communities.” Sloan Management Review, Winter 2000:63–74.
11 Nickols F. Distance Consulting. [online]. 2000. [cited January 28, 2009].
12 Wenger E, McDermott R, Snyder WM. (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge–Seven Principles for Cultivating Communities of PracticeExternal. Harvard Business School Archive. [online]. 2002 [cited June 8, 2008].
13 Synder WM, Wenger E. Our World as a Learning System: A Communities-of-Practice Approach. In Conner ML, Clawson JG, Eds. Create a Learning Culture: Strategy, Practice, and Technology. Cambridge University Press. 2004.
14 Agranoff, R. Levering Networks: A Guide for Public Managers Working across Organizations. IMB Center for the Business of Government. March 2003.
15 National Park Service. Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance ProgramExternal. [online]. [cited November 2008].
16 Brown JS, Duguid P. Organizational learning and communities of practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organizational Science 1991;2(1).
17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Impact and Value: Telling your Programs Story. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Oral Health, 2007.
18 Denning, Steven. A Leaders Guide to Storytelling: Mastering the Art and Discipline of Business Narrative. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005.
19 Kahan S. Etienne Wenger on communities of practice: Engagement, identity and innovation. The Journal of Association Leadership, March 2004.
20 Douthwaite B. Enabling Innovation: A Practical Approach to Understanding and Fostering Technological Innovation. London: Zed Books; 2001.
21 Brown JS, Duguid P. 1991. Organizational Learning and Communities of Practice: Toward a Unified View of Working, Learning, and Innovation. Organization Science. Vol 2, No. 1. The Institute of Management Science; 1991.
22 Raymond ES. The Cathedral and the BazaarExternal. [online] 1999 [cited November 2008].
23 Vincent L. Innovation midwives: Sustaining innovation streams in established companies. Research-Technology Management 2005;48(1):41–49.
24 Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning as a Social System. Systems Thinker, 1998.
25 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for program evaluation in public health. Atlanta, GA: MMWR 1999 (NORR-11): 1-40.
Inclusion in this resource kit does not imply CDC endorsement or recommendation. CDC is not responsible for the content of any “offsite” Web page on this list or elsewhere in the resource kit. Web addresses listed were accurate at the time of content posting. Web addresses sometimes change as sites are updated and improved. If you cannot access an address, try deleting the information to the right of the first slash (/) to connect to the home page of the site.