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LAPP Bibliography

This bibliography is intended for health professionals and includes articles on pertussis epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and public health response. CDC authored articles can also be found in Publications on this website.

Global Pertussis Epidemiology

  1. Yeung KHT, Duclos P, Anthony E, et al, An update of the global burden of pertussis in children younger than 5 years: a modelling study. Lancet. Epub ahead of print. 2017.
  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual epidemiologic report: Pertussis.
  3. Guiso N, Wirsing von Koning CH. Surveillance of pertussis: Methods and implementation. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016;14:657–67.
  4. Heininger U, André P, Chlibek R, et al. Comparative epidemiologic characteristics of pertussis in 10 Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000–2013PLoS One. 2016;11(6): e0155949
  5. Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post–2015 priorities: An updated systematic analysis. Lancet. 2015;385:430–40.
  6. Guimarães LM, Carneiro El, Carvalho-Costa FA. Increasing incidence of pertussis in Brazil: a retrospective study using surveillance data. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:442.
  7. Skoff TH, Baumback J, Cieslak PR. Tracking pertussis and evaluating control measures through Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(9):1568–73.
  8. World Health Organization. Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper—August 2015. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2015;35(90):433–60.
  9. Tan T, Dalby T, Forsyth K, et al. Pertussis across the globe: Recent epidemiologic trends from 2000–2013. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34:e222–3. [Epub ahead of print]
  10. Pérez-Pérez GF, Rojas-Mendoza T, Cabrera-Gaylan DA, et al. [Pertussis in Mexico, an epidemiological overview: A study of 19 years at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social] Panorama epidemiológico de la tos ferina: 19 años de estudio epidemiológico en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2015;53(2):164–70. (Article in Spanish)
  11. Gaillard ME, Bottero D, Moreno G, et al. Strategies and new developments to control pertussis, an actual health problem. Pathog Dis. 2015;73(8):413–20.
  12. Ochoa Perez UR, Hernández-Sierra JF, Escalante-Padrón FJ, et al. Epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in San Luis Potosí, MexicoPediatr Infect Dis J. 2014; 33(5):540–2.
  13. Romanin V, Agustinho V, Califano G, et al. Epidemiological situation of pertussis and strategies to control it: Argentina, 2002–2011. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014;112(5):413–20. (Article in English, Spanish)
  14. Falleiros Arlant LH, de Colsa A, Flores D, Brea J, et al. Pertussis in Latin America: Epidemiology and control strategies. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014;12(10):1265–75.
  15. Villarreal-Perez JZ, Ramirez-Aranda JM, Rodriguez-Rodriguez I, et al. Absence of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis in pregnant women and newborns in the state of Nuevo Leon. J Perinat Med. 2014;42(5):649–54.
  16. Pan American Health Organization. Vaccination: Your best shot! XXII Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine Preventable Diseases (TAG), July 1–2, 2014: Final Report[49 pages]. Washington: 1–39.
  17. World Health Organization. Revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines: July 2014. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2014;30(89):337–44.
  18. Gentile A, Romanin VS, Juarez Mdel, et al. Epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in a children’s hospital. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014;112(1):26–32. (Article in English, Spanish)
  19. Pillsbury A, Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiology review series: Pertussis, 2006–2012. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2014;38(3):E179–94.
  20. Bottero D, Griffith MM, Lara C, et al. Bordetella holmesii in children suspected of pertussis in Argentina. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141(4):714–7.
  21. Pan American Health Organization. Vaccination: A shared responsibility. XXI Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine–preventable Diseases (TAG), July 3–5, 2013: Final Report[1.18 MB, 69 pages]. Ecuador: 1–69.
  22. Pan American Health Organization. Paving the way for immunization. XX Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine Preventable Diseases (TAG), Oct 17–19, 2012: Final Report[29 pages]. Washington: 1–29.
  23. Cherry JD, Tan T, Wirsing von König CH et al. Clinical definitions of pertussis: Summary of Global Pertussis Initiative roundtable meeting, February 2011. Clin Infect Dis. Jun 2014; 54(12):1756–64.
  24. Guiso N, Liese J, Plotkin S. The Global Pertussis Initiative: Meeting report from the fourth regional roundtable meeting, France, April 14–15, 2010Human Vaccine, 7(4): 481–8.
  25. Forsyth KD, von Konig CHW, Tan T, et al. Prevention of pertussis: Recommendations derived from the second Global Pertussis Initiative roundtable meeting. Vaccine. 2007;25(14):2634–42.
  26. Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. Pertussis epidemiology in Australia over the decade 1995–2005—Trends by region and age group. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2007;31(2):205–15.
  27. Crowcroft NS, Pebody RG. Recent developments in pertussis. Lancet. 2006;367(9526):926–36.
  28. Celentano LP, Massari M, Paramatti D, et al. Resurgence of pertussis in Europe. Ped Infect Dis J. 2005;24(9):761–5.
  29. Pan American Health Organization. Control of Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Hepatitis B Field Guide[3.66 MB, 107 pages]. Scientific and Technical Publication. No. 604. 2005:11–18.
  30. Tanaka M, Vitek CR, Pascual FB, et al. Trends in pertussis among infants in the United States, 1980–1999. JAMA. 2003;290(22):2968–75.
  31. World Health Organization. WHO–recommended standards for surveillance of selected vaccine–preventable diseases[62 pages]. February 2003. WHO/V&B/3.01
  32. Crowcroft NS, Stein C, Duclos P, et al. How best to estimate the global burden of pertussis? Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3(7):413–18.
  33. Wymann MN, Richard JL, Vidondo B, et al. Prospective pertussis surveillance in Switzerland, 1991–2006. Vaccine. 2001;29(11):2058–65.
  34. Halperin SA, Wang EE, Law B, et al. Epidemiological features of pertussis in hospitalized patients in Canada, 1991–1997: Report of the Immunization Monitoring Program—Active (IMPACT). Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28(6):1238–43.
  35. Farizo KM, Cochi SL, Zell ER, et al. Epidemiological features of pertussis in the United States, 1980–1989. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:708–19.

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Signs, Symptoms, and Severity

  1. McNamara L, Skoff T, Faulkner A, et al. Reduced severity of pertussis in persons with age-appropriate pertussis vaccination – United States, 2010-2021. Clin Infect Dis. Epub ahead of print. 2017.
  2. Kilgore PE, Salim AM, Zervos MJ, et al. Pertussis: Microbiology, disease, treatment, and prevention. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016;29(3):449–486.
  3. Marshall H, Clarke M, Rasiah K, et al. Predictors of disease severity in children hospitalized for pertussis during an epidemic. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(4):339–45.
  4. Barlow RS, Reynolds LE, Cieslak PR, et al. Vaccinated children and adolescents with pertussis infections have decreased illness severity and duration, Oregon 2010–2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(11):1523–9.
  5. Paisley RD, Blaylock J, Hartzell JD. Whooping cough in adults: An update on a reemerging infection. Amr J Med. 2012;125(2):141–3.
  6. Goh A, Chong CY, Tee N, et al. Pertussis – An under-diagnosed disease with high morbidity in Singapore Children. Vaccine. 2011;29:2503–7.
  7. Hochwald O, Bamberger ES, Rubin L, et al. A pertussis outbreak among daycare children in northern Israel: Who gets sick? Isr Med Assoc J. 2010;12(5):283–6.
  8. Ghanaia RM, Karimi A, Sadeghi H, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of the World Health Organization pertussis clinical case definition. Intl J Infect Dis. 2010;14(12):e1072–5.
  9. Cornia PB, Hersh AL, Lipsky BA, et al. Does this coughing adolescent or adult patient have pertussis? JAMA. 2010;304(8):890–6.
  10. Waters V, Jamieson F, Richardson SE, et al. Outbreak of atypical pertussis detected by polymerase chain reaction in immunized preschool-aged children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(7):582–7.
  11. Shakib JH, Wyman L, Gesteland PH, et al. Should the pertussis case definition for public health reporting be refined? J Public Health Manag Pract. 2009;15(6):479–84.
  12. Sotir MJ, Cappozzo DL, Warshauer DM, et al. A countywide outbreak of pertussis: initial transmission in a high school weight room with subsequent substantial impact on adolescents and adults. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(1):79–85.
  13. Cagney M, McIntyre PB, Heron L, et al. The relationship between pertussis symptomatology, incidence, and serology in adolescents. Vaccine. 2008;26(44):5547–53.
  14. Eidlitz-Markus T, Mimouni M, Zeharia A. Pertussis symptoms in adolescents and children versus infants: The influence of vaccination and age. Clin Pediatr. 2007;46(8):718–23.
  15. Briand V, Bonmarin I, Lévy-Bruhl D. Study of the risk factors for severe childhood pertussis based on hospital surveillance data. Vaccine. 2007;25(41):7224–32.
  16. Harnden A, Grant C, Harrison T, et al. Whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: Prospective cohort study in primary care. BMJ. 2006;333(7560):174–7.
  17. Ward JI, Cherry JD, Swei-Ju C, et al. Bordetella pertussis infections in vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescents and adults, as assessed in a national prospective randomized acellular pertussis vaccine trial (APERT). Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:151–7.
  18. Narkeviciute I, Kavaliunaite E, Bernatoniene G, et al. Clinical presentation of pertussis in fully immunized children in Lithuania. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:40.
  19. Tozzi AE, Ravá L, Ciofi ML, et al. Clinical presentation of pertussis in unvaccinated and vaccinated children in the first six years of life. Pediatrics. 2003;112(5):1069–75.
  20. Gilberg S, Njamkepo E, Parent Du Châtelet I, et al. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults presenting with persistent cough in a French area with very high whole-cell vaccine coverage. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(3):415–8.
  21. Senzilet LD, Halperin SC, Spika JS, et al. Pertussis is a frequent cause of prolonged cough illness in adults and adolescents. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(12):1691–7.
  22. Stojanov S, Liese J, Belohradsky BH. Hospitalization and complications in children under 2 years of age with Bordetella pertussis infection. Infection. 2000;28(2):106–10.
  23. Yih KW, Lett SM, des Vignes FN, et al. The increasing incidence of pertussis in Massachusetts adolescents and adults, 1989–1998. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(5):1409–16.
  24. De Serres GS, Shadmani R, Duval B, et al. Morbidity of pertussis in adolescents and adults. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(1):174–9.
  25. Yaari E, Yafe-Zimerman Y, Schwartz SB, et al. Clinical manifestations of Bordetella pertussis infection in immunized children and young adults. Chest. 1999;115(5):1254–8.
  26. Stehr K, Cherry JD, Heininger U, et al. A comparative efficacy trial in Germany in infants who received either the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component DTP (DTaP) vaccine, the Lederle whole-cell component DTP vaccine, or DT vaccine. Pediatrics. 1998;101(1 Pt 1):1–11.
  27. Langkamp DL, Davis JP. Increased risk of reported pertussis and hospitalization associated with pertussis in low-birth-weight children. J Pediatr. 1996;128 (5 Pt1):654–9.
  28. Postels-Multani S, Schmitt HJ, Wirsing von Konig CH, et al. Symptoms and complications of pertussis in adults. Infection. 1995;23(3):139–42.
  29. Johnston ID, Anderson HR, Lambert HP, et al. Respiratory morbidity and lung function after whooping-cough. Lancet. 1983;2(8359):1104–8.

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  1. Pawloski LC, Plikaytis BD, Martin MD, et al. Evaluation of commercial assays for single–point diagnosis of pertussis in the US. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. Epub ahead of print. 2016.
  2. Faulkner AE, Skoff TH, Tondella ML, et al. Trends in pertussis diagnostic testing in the United States, 1990–2012. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(1):39–44.
  3. Van der Zee A, Schellenkens JFP, Mooi FR. Laboratory diagnosis of pertussis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28(4):1005–26.
  4. Burgos-Rivera B, Lee AD, Bowden KE, et al. Evaluation of level of agreement in Bordetella species identification in three U.S. laboratories during a period of increased pertussis. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(6):1842–7.
  5. Williams MM, Taylor TH, Warshauer DM, et al. Harmonization of Bordetella pertussis real–time PCR diagnostics in the United States in 2012. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(1):118–23.
  6. Vaz-de-Lima LR, Martin MD, Pawloski LC, et al. Serodiagnosis as adjunct assay for pertussis infection in São Paulo, Brazil. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(5):636–40.
  7. World Health Organization. Laboratory manual for the diagnosis of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis/Bordetella parapertussis: Update 2014. 2014. WHO/IVB/14.03.
  8. Tatti KM, Martin SW, Boney KO, et al. Qualitative assessment of pertussis diagnostics in United States laboratories. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2013;32(9):942–5.
  9. Pawloski LC, Kirkland KB, Baughman AL, et al. Does tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination interfere with serodiagnosis of pertussis infection? Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(6):875–80.
  10. Kapasi A, Meade BD, Plikaytis B, et al. Comparative study of different sources of pertussis toxin (PT) as coating antigens in IgC anti–PT enzyme–linked immunosorbent assays. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(1):64–72.
  11. Njamkepo E, Bonacorsi S, Debruyne M, et al. Significant finding of Bordetella holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal samples from French patients with suspected pertussis. J Clin. Microbiol. 2011;49(12):4347–8.
  12. Tatti KM, Sparks KN, Boney KO, et al. Novel multitarget real–time PCR assay for rapid detection of Bordetella species in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(12):4059–66.
  13. Tondella ML, Carlone GM, Messonnier N, et al. International Bordetella pertussis assay standardization and harmonization meeting report: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, US 19–20 July 2007. Vaccine. 2009;27(6):803–14.
  14. Menzies SL, Kadwad V, Pawloski LC, et al. Development and analytical validation of an immunoassay for quantifying serum anti–pertussis toxin antibodies resulting from Bordetella pertussis infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16(12):1781–8.
  15. Cloud JL, Hymas W, Carroll KC. Impact of nasopharyngeal swab types on detection of Bordetella pertussis by PCR and culture. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(10):3838–40.

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Molecular Epidemiology

  1. Gates I, DuVall M, Ju H, et al. Development of a qualitative assay for screening of Bordetella pertussis isolates for pertussis toxin production. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175326.
  2. Weigand MR, Peng Y, Loparev V, et al. The history of Bordetella pertussis genome evolution includes structural rearrangement. J Bacteriol. 2017;199(8). pii: e00806016.
  3. Bowden KE, Weigand MR, Peng Y, et al. Genome structural diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis isolates from two recent U.S. whooping cough statewide epidemics. mSphere. 2016;1(3).pii: e00036–16.
  4. Breakwell L, Kelso P, Finley C, et al. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness in the setting of pertactin–deficient pertussis. Pediatrics. 2016;137(5). pii: e20153973.
  5. Cassiday PK, Skoff TH, Jawahir S, et al. Changes in predominance of pulsed–field gel electrophoresis profiles of Bordetella pertussis isolates, United States, 2000–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(3):442–8.
  6. Williams MM, Sen K, Weigand MR, et al. Bordetella pertussis strain lacking pertactin and pertussis toxin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):319–22.
  7. Martin SW, Pawloski L, Williams M, et al. Pertactin–negative Bordetella pertussis strains: Evidence for a possible selective advantage. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(2):223–7.
  8. Safarchi A, Octavia S, Luu LD, et al. Pertactin negative Bordetella pertussis demonstrates higher fitness under vaccine selection pressure in a mixed infection model. Vaccine. 2015;33(46):6277–81.
  9. Hegerle N, Dore G, Guiso N. Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2014;32(49):6597–600.
  10. Zeddeman A, van Gent M, Heuvelman CJ, et al. Investigations into the emergence of pertactin–deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates in six European countries, 1996–2012. Euro Surveill. 2014;19(33):pii 20881.
  11. Bowden KE, Williams MM, Cassiday PK, et al. Molecular epidemiology of pertussis epidemic — Washington State, 2012. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(10):3549–57.
  12. Hegerle N, Guiso N.  Bordetella pertussis and pertactin–deficient clinical isolates: lessons for pertussis vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13(9):1135–46.
  13. Bart MJ, Harris SR, Advani A, et al. Global population structure and evolution of Bordetella pertussis and their relationship with vaccination. MBio. 2014;22:5(2):e01074.
  14. Lam C, Octavia S, Ricafort L, et al. Rapid increase in pertactin–deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(4):626–33.
  15. Pawloski LC, Queenan AM, Cassiday PK, et al. Prevalence and molecular characterization of pertactin–deficient Bordetella pertussis in the United States. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(2):119–25.
  16. Queenan AM, Cassiday PK, Evangelista A. Pertactin–negative variants of Bordetella pertussis in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(6):583–4.
  17. Schmidtke AJ, Boney KO, Martin SW, et al. Population diversity among Bordetella pertussis isolates, United States, 1935–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1248–55.
  18. Mooi FR, van Loo IHM, van Gent M, et al. Bordetella pertussis strains with increased toxin production associated with pertussis resurgence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1206–13.
  19. van Amersfoorth SCM, Schouls LM, van der Heide HGJ, et al. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis populations in European countries with different vaccination policies. J Clin Microbiol, 2005;43(6):2837–43.

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  1. Mandal S, Tatti KM, Woods-Stout D, et al. Pertussis pseudo-outbreak linked to specimens contaminated by Bordetella pertussis DNA from clinic surfaces. Pediatr. 2012;129(2):e424 –30.
  2. Salimnia H, Lephart PR, Asmar BI, et al. Aerosolized vaccine as an unexpected source of false-positive Bordetella pertussis PCR results. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2012;50(2):472 –4.
  3. Spokes PJ, Quinn HE, McAnulty JM. Review of the 2008-2009 pertussis epidemic in NSW: Notifications and hospitalisations. NSW Public Health Bull. 2010;21(7 –8):167 –73.
  4. Kirkland KB, Talbot EA, Lasky RA, et al. Outbreaks of respiratory illness mistakenly attributed to pertussis—New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Tennessee, 2004 –2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(33):837 –42.

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Source of Infection in Infants

  1. Curtis CR, Baughman AL, DeBolt C, et al. Risk factors associated with Bordetella pertussis among infants aged ≤4 months in the pre–Tdap Era – United States, 2002–2005. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Epub ahead of print. 2016.
  2. Skoff TH, Kenyon C, Cocoros N, et al. Sources of infant pertussis infections in the United States. Pediatrics. 2015;136(4): 635–641.
  3. Bertilone C, Wallace T, Selvey LA. Finding the ‘who’ in whooping cough: Vaccinated siblings are important pertussis sources in infants 6 months of age and under. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2014;38(3):E195–200.
  4. Wiley KE, Zuo Y, Macartney KK, McIntyre PB. Sources of pertussis infection in young infants: A review of key evidence informing targeting of the cocoon strategy. Vaccine. 2013;31(4):618–25.
  5. de Greeff SC, Mooi FR, Westerhof A, et al. Pertussis disease burden in the household: How to protect young infants. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(10):1339–45.
  6. Jardine A, Conaty SJ, Lowbridge C, et al. Who gives pertussis to infants? Source of infection for laboratory confirmed cases less than 12 months of age during an epidemic, Sydney, 2009. Commun Dis Intell. 2010;34(2):116–21.
  7. Wendelboe AM, Njamkepo E, Bourillo A, et al. Transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(4):293–9.
  8. Kowalzik F, Barbosa AR, Fernandez VR, et al. Prospective multinational study of pertussis infection in hospitalized infants and their household contacts. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(3):238–42.
  9. Bisgard KM, Pascual FB, Ehresmann KR, et al. Infant pertussis who was the source? Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23(11):985–9.
  10. Mertsola J, Ruuskanen O, Eerola E, et al. Intrafamilial spread of pertussis. J Ped. 1983;103(3):359–63.

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  1. Robinson SG, Liko J. The timing of pertussis cases in unvaccinated children in an outbreak year: Oregon 2012. J Pediatr. 2017;183:159–63.
  2. Tiwari TS, Baughman AL, Clark TA. First pertussis vaccine dose and prevention of infant mortality. Pediatrics. 2015;135(6):990–9.
  3. Zhang L, Prietsch SO, Axelsson I, et al. Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:CD001478.
  4. Sheridan SL, McCall BJ, Davis CA, et al. Acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness for children during the 2009-2010 pertussis epidemic in Queensland. Med J Aust. 2014;200(6):334–8.
  5. Guiso N. Pertussis vaccination and whooping cough: And now what? Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13(10):1163–5.
  6. Quinn HE, Snelling TL, Macartney KK, et al. Duration of protection after first dose of acellular pertussis vaccine in infants. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):e513-9.
  7. Plotkin SA. Complex correlates of protection after vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(10):1458–65.
  8. Misegades LK, Winter K, Harriman K, et al. Association of childhood pertussis with receipt of 5 doses of pertussis vaccine by time since last vaccine dose, California, 2010. JAMA. 2012;308(20):2126-32.
  9. Clark TA, Messonnier NE, Hadler SC. Pertussis control: Time for something new? Trends Microbiol. 2012;20(5):211–3.
  10. Nilsson L, Lepp T, von Segebaden K, et al. Pertussis vaccination in infancy lowers the incidence of pertussis disease and the rate of hospitalisation after one and two doses: Analyses of 10 years of pertussis surveillance. Vaccine. 2012;30(21):3239–47.
  11. Cherry JD. Why do pertussis vaccines fail? Pediatrics. 2012;129(5):968–70.
  12. Ridda I, Yin JK, King C, et al. The importance of pertussis in older adults: A growing case for reviewing vaccination strategy in the elderly. Vaccine. 2012;30(48):6745–52.
  13. Ulloa-Gutierrez R. Pertussis vaccination in newborns. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8(2):153–7.
  14. Preziosi MP, Halloran ME. Effects of pertussis vaccination on transmission: Vaccine efficacy for infectiousness. Vaccine. 2003;21(17–18):1853–61.
  15. Juretzko P, von Kries R, Hermann M, et al. Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine assessed by hospital-based active surveillance in Germany. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(2):162–7.
  16. Aoyama T, Murase Y, Gonda T, et al. Type-specific efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccine. Am J Dis Child. 1988;142(1):40–2.
  17. Grob PR, Crowder MJ, Robbins JF. Effect of vaccination on severity and dissemination of whooping cough. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981;282(6280):1925–8.
  18. McKendrick NW, Gully PR, Geddes AM. Protection against pertussis by immunisation. Br Med J. 1980;281(6252):1390–1.

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  1. Klein NP, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Waning Tdap effectiveness in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2016; 137(3): e20153326.
  2. Acosta A, DeBolt C, Tasslimi A, et al. Tdap vaccine effectiveness in adolescents during the 2012 Washington state pertussis epidemic. Pediatrics. 2015;135(6):981–9.
  3. Koepke R, Eickhoff JC, Ayele RA, et al. Estimating the effectiveness of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for preventing pertussis: evidence of rapidly waning immunity and difference in effectiveness by Tdap brand. J. Infect Dis. 2014;210(6):942–53.
  4. Sheridan SL, Frith K, Snelling TL, et al. Waning vaccine immunity in teenagers primed with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine: Recent epidemiology. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13(9):1081–106.
  5. Liko J, Robison SG, Cieslak PR. Pertussis vaccine performance in an epidemic year-Oregon, 2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(2):261–3.
  6. Klein NP, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Comparative effectiveness of acellular versus whole-cell pertussis vaccines in teenagers. Pediatrics. 2013;131(6):e1716–22.
  7. Baxter R, Bartlett J, Rowhani-Rahbar A, et al. Effectiveness of pertussis vaccines for adolescents and adults: case-control study. BMJ. 2013;347:f4249.
  8. Liko J, Robison SG, Cieslak PR. Priming with whole-cell versus acellular pertussis vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(6):581–2.
  9. Skoff TH, Cohn AC, Clark TA, et al. Early impact of the US Tdap vaccination program on pertussis trends. Arch Pediat. Adolesc Med. 2012;166(4):344–9.
  10. Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. The impact of adolescent pertussis immunization, 2004–2009: Lessons from Australia. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(9):666–74.
  11. Wei SC, Tatti K, Cushing K, et al. Effectiveness of adolescent and adult tetanus, reduced-dose diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine against pertussis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(3):315–21.
  12. Rank C, Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness after mass immunization of high school students in Australia. Pediatr Infec Dis J. 2009;28(2):152–3.

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Pregnant Women

  1. Baxter R, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Effectiveness of vaccination during pregnancy to prevent infant pertussis. Pediatrics 2017;139(5): e20164091.
  2. Gkenki D, Katsakiori P, Marangos M, et al. Maternal vaccination against pertussis: A systematic review of recent literature. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. Epub ahead of print. 2017.
  3. Winter K, Nickell S, Powell M, et al. Effectiveness of prenatal versus postpartum tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination in preventing infant pertussis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(1):3–8.
  4. Sobanjo-Ter MA, Duclos P, McIntyre P, et al.  Assessing the evidence for maternal pertussis immunization: A report from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation symposium on pertussis infant disease burden in low and lower-middle-income countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):S123–33.
  5. Sukumaran K, McCarthy NL, Kharbanda EO, et al. Safety of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccinations in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(5):1069–74.
  6. Sukumaran K, McCarthy NL, Kharbanda EO, et al. Association of Tdap vaccination with acute events and adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with prior tetanus-containing immunizations. JAMA. 2015; 314(15):1581–7.
  7. Englund JA. Maternal immunization – Promises and concerns. Vaccine. 2015;33(47):6372–3.
  8. Healy CM, Nq N, Taylor RS, et al. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine uptake during pregnancy in a metropolitan tertiary care center. Vaccine. 2015;33(38)4983–7.
  9. Dabrera G, Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, et al. A case-control study to estimate the effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in protecting newborn infants in England and Wales, 2012–2013. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(3):333–7.
  10. Kharbanda EO, Vazquez-Benitez G, Lipkind HS, et al. Evaluation of the association of maternal pertussis vaccination with obstetric events and birth outcomes. JAMA. 2014;312(18):1897–1904.
  11. McIntyre PB, Clark TA. Pertussis vaccine in pregnancy – first dose for every infant? Lancet. 2014;384(9953):1484–6.
  12. Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Campbell H, et al. Effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in England: An observational study. Lancet. 2014;384(9953):1521–8.
  13. Kharbanda EO, Vazquez-Benitez G, Lipkind H, et al. Receipt of pertussis vaccine during pregnancy across 7 Vaccine Safety Datalink Sites. Prev Med. 2014;67:316–9.
  14. Housey M, Zhang F, Miller C, et al. Vaccination with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine of pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid—Michigan, 2011–2013MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(38):839–42.
  15. Donegan K, King B, Bryan P. Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: Observational study. BMJ. 2014;349:g4219.
  16. Munoz FM, Bond NH, Maccato M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization during pregnancy in mothers and infants: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(17):1760–9.
  17. Shakib JH, Korgenski K, Sheng X, et al. Tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccine during pregnancy: Pregnancy and infant health outcomes. J Pediatr.2013;163(5):1422–6.
  18. Hardy-Fairbanks AJ, Pan SJ, Decker MD, et al. Immune responses in infants whose mothers received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(11):1257–60.
  19. Zheteyeva YA, Moro PL, Tepper NK, et al. Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207(1):59.e1-7.
  20. Gall SA, Myers J, Pichichero M. Maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine: effect on maternal and neonatal serum antibody levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(4):334.e1-5.
  21. Halperin BA, Morris A, Mackinnon-Cameron D, et al. Kinetics of the antibody response to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in women of childbearing age and postpartum women. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(9):885–92.
  22. Leuridan E, Hens N, Peeters N, et al. Effect of a prepregnancy pertussis booster dose on maternal antibody titers in young infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(7):608–10.
  23. Mooi FR, de Greeff SC. The case for maternal vaccination against pertussis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7(9):614–24.
  24. Van Rie A, Wendelboe AM, Englund JA. Role of maternal pertussis antibodies in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(5 Suppl):S62–5.
  25. Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M. Tetanus toxoid and congenital abnormalities. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1999;64(3):253–8.
  26. Englund JA, Anderson EL, Reed GF, et al. The effect of maternal antibody on the serologic response and the incidence of adverse reactions after primary immunization with acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Pediatrics. 1995;96(3 Pt 2):580–4.
  27. Silveira CM, Cáceres VM, Dutra MG, et al. Safety of tetanus toxoid in pregnant women: a hospital-based case-control study of congenital anomalies. Bull World Health Org. 1995;73(5):605–8.

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United States Pertussis Vaccine Recommendations

You can find all U.S. vaccine recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on the following CDC web pages:

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Cocoon Strategy

  1. Blain AE, Lewis M, Banarjee E, et al.  An assessment of the cocooning strategy for preventing infant pertussis-United States, 2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2016:63(suppl 4):S221–6.
  2. Healy CM, Rench MA, Wootton SH, et al. Evaluation of the impact of a pertussis cocooning program on infant pertussis infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(1):22–6.
  3. Quinn HE, Snelling TL, Habig A, et al. Parental Tdap boosters and infant pertussis: a case-control study. Pediatrics. 2014;134(4):713–20.
  4. Urwyler P, Heininger U. Protecting newborns from pertussis — The challenge of complete cocooning. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):397.
  5. Rosenblum E, McBane S, Wang W, et al. Protecting newborns by immunizing family members in a hospital-based vaccine clinic: a successful Tdap cocooning program during the 2010 California pertussis epidemic. Public Health Rep. 2014;129(3):245–51.
  6. Mills B, Fensterheim L, Taitel M, et al. Pharmacist-led Tdap vaccination of close contacts of neonates in a women’s hospital. Vaccine. 2014;32(4):521–5.
  7. Lugnér AK, van der Maas N, van Boven M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect newborns against pertussis: comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategies. Vaccine. 2013;31(46):5392–7.
  8. Carrico CA, O’Keefe C. Protecting infants against pertussis: the cocooning strategy in practice. Nurse Pract. 2013;38(3):40–5.
  9. Wiley KE, Zuo Y, Macartney KK, et al. Sources of pertussis infection in young infants: A review of key evidence informing targeting of the cocoon strategy. Vaccine. 2013;31(4):618–25.
  10. Munoz F, Englund J. Infant pertussis: Is cocooning the answer? Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(9):893–6.
  11. Healy CM, Rench MA, Baker CJ. Implementation of cocooning against pertussis in a high-risk population. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(2):157–62.
  12. Westra TA, de Vries R, Tamminga JJ, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of various pertussis vaccination strategies primarily aimed at protecting infants in the Netherlands. Clin Ther. 2010;32(8):1479–95.
  13. Coudeville L, Van Rie A, Getsios D, et al. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects (pertussis control strategies). PLoS ONE. 2009;4(7):e6284.
  14. Walter EB,Allred N, Rowe-West B, et al. Cocooning infants: Tdap immunization for new parents in the pediatric office. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9(5):344–7.
  15. Healy CM, Rench MA, Castagnini LA, et al. Pertussis immunization in a high-risk postpartum population. Vaccine. 2009;27(41):5599–602.
  16. McIntyre P, Wood N. Pertussis in early infancy: Disease burden and preventive strategies. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22(3):215–23.
  17. Gerbie MV, Tan TQ. Pertussis disease in new mothers: Effect on young infants and strategies for prevention. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(2 Pt 1):399–401.
  18. Coudeville L, Van Rie A, Andre Pl. Adult pertussis vaccination strategies and their impact on pertussis in the United States: evaluation of routine and targeted (cocoon) strategies. Epidemiol Infect. 2008; 136(5):604–20.
  19. Lee GM, Riffelmann M, Wirsing von Konig CR. Cost-effectiveness of adult pertussis vaccination in Germany. Vaccine. 2008;26(29–30):3673–9.
  20. Knuf M, Schmitt HJ, Wolter J, et al. Neonatal vaccination with an acellular pertussis vaccine accelerates the acquisition of pertussis antibodies in infants. J Pediatrics. 2008;152(5):655–60.
  21. Van Rie A, Hethcote HW. Adolescent and adult pertussis vaccination: computer simulations of five new strategies. Vaccine. 2004;22(23–24):3154–65.

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