LAPP Bibliography

This bibliography is intended for health professionals and includes articles on pertussis epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and public health response. CDC authored articles can also be found in Publications on this website.


Global Pertussis Epidemiology

  1. Yeung KHT, Duclos P, Anthony E, et al, An update of the global burden of pertussis in children younger than 5 years: a modelling studyexternal icon. Lancet. 2017;17(9):974–80.
  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual epidemiologic report: Pertussisexternal icon.
  3. Folaranmi T, Pinell-McNamara V, Griffith M, Hao Y, Coronado F, Briere EC. Systematic review and meta-analysis of pertussis epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: 1980–2015pdf iconexternal icon. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2017;41:e102.
  4. Guiso N, Wirsing von Koning CH. Surveillance of pertussis: Methods and implementationexternal icon. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016;14:657–67.
  5. Heininger U, André P, Chlibek R, et al. Comparative epidemiologic characteristics of pertussis in 10 Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000–2013external iconPLoS One. 2016;11(6): e0155949
  6. Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post–2015 priorities: An updated systematic analysisexternal icon. Lancet. 2015;385:430–40.
  7. Guimarães LM, Carneiro El, Carvalho-Costa FA. Increasing incidence of pertussis in Brazil: a retrospective study using surveillance dataexternal icon. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:442.
  8. Skoff TH, Baumback J, Cieslak PR. Tracking pertussis and evaluating control measures through Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program, United Statesexternal icon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(9):1568–73.
  9. World Health Organization. Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper—August 2015pdf iconexternal icon. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2015;35(90):433–60.
  10. Tan T, Dalby T, Forsyth K, et al. Pertussis across the globe: Recent epidemiologic trends from 2000–2013external icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34:e222–3.
  11. Pérez-Pérez GF, Rojas-Mendoza T, Cabrera-Gaylan DA, et al. [Pertussis in Mexico, an epidemiological overview: A study of 19 years at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social] Panorama epidemiológico de la tos ferina: 19 años de estudio epidemiológico en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.external icon Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2015;53(2):164–70. (Article in Spanish)
  12. Gaillard ME, Bottero D, Moreno G, et al. Strategies and new developments to control pertussis, an actual health problemexternal icon. Pathog Dis. 2015;73(8):413–20.
  13. Ochoa Perez UR, Hernández-Sierra JF, Escalante-Padrón FJ, et al. Epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in San Luis Potosí, Mexicoexternal iconPediatr Infect Dis J. 2014; 33(5):540–2.
  14. Romanin V, Agustinho V, Califano G, et al. Epidemiological situation of pertussis and strategies to control it: Argentina, 2002–2011external icon. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014;112(5):413–20. (Article in English, Spanish)
  15. Falleiros Arlant LH, de Colsa A, Flores D, Brea J, et al. Pertussis in Latin America: Epidemiology and control strategiesexternal icon. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014;12(10):1265–75.
  16. Villarreal-Perez JZ, Ramirez-Aranda JM, Rodriguez-Rodriguez I, et al. Absence of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis in pregnant women and newborns in the state of Nuevo Leonexternal icon. J Perinat Med. 2014;42(5):649–54.
  17. Pan American Health Organization. Vaccination: Your best shot! XXII Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine Preventable Diseases (TAG), July 1–2, 2014: Final Reportpdf icon[49 pages]external icon. Washington: 1–39.
  18. World Health Organization. Revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines: July 2014pdf iconexternal icon. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2014;30(89):337–44.
  19. Gentile A, Romanin VS, Juarez Mdel, et al. Epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in a children’s hospitalexternal icon. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014;112(1):26–32. (Article in English, Spanish)
  20. Pillsbury A, Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiology review series: Pertussis, 2006–2012external icon. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2014;38(3):E179–94.
  21. Bottero D, Griffith MM, Lara C, et al. Bordetella holmesii in children suspected of pertussis in Argentinaexternal icon. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141(4):714–7.
  22. Pan American Health Organization. Vaccination: A shared responsibility. XXI Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine–preventable Diseases (TAG), July 3–5, 2013: Final Reportpdf icon[1.18 MB, 69 pages]external icon. Ecuador: 1–69.
  23. Pan American Health Organization. Paving the way for immunization. XX Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine Preventable Diseases (TAG), Oct 17–19, 2012: Final Reportpdf icon[29 pages]external icon. Washington: 1–29.
  24. Cherry JD, Tan T, Wirsing von König CH et al. Clinical definitions of pertussis: Summary of Global Pertussis Initiative roundtable meeting, February 2011external icon. Clin Infect Dis. Jun 2014; 54(12):1756–64.
  25. Guiso N, Liese J, Plotkin S. The Global Pertussis Initiative: Meeting report from the fourth regional roundtable meeting, France, April 14–15, 2010external iconHuman Vaccine, 7(4): 481–8.
  26. Forsyth KD, von Konig CHW, Tan T, et al. Prevention of pertussis: Recommendations derived from the second Global Pertussis Initiative roundtable meetingexternal icon. Vaccine. 2007;25(14):2634–42.
  27. Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. Pertussis epidemiology in Australia over the decade 1995–2005—Trends by region and age groupexternal icon. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2007;31(2):205–15.
  28. Crowcroft NS, Pebody RG. Recent developments in pertussisexternal icon. Lancet. 2006;367(9526):926–36.
  29. Celentano LP, Massari M, Paramatti D, et al. Resurgence of pertussis in Europeexternal icon. Ped Infect Dis J. 2005;24(9):761–5.
  30. Pan American Health Organization. Control of Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Hepatitis B Field Guidepdf icon[3.66 MB, 107 pages]external icon. Scientific and Technical Publication. No. 604. 2005:11–18.
  31. Tanaka M, Vitek CR, Pascual FB, et al. Trends in pertussis among infants in the United States, 1980–1999external icon. JAMA. 2003;290(22):2968–75.
  32. World Health Organization. WHO–recommended standards for surveillance of selected vaccine–preventable diseases[62 pages]external icon. February 2003. WHO/V&B/3.01
  33. Crowcroft NS, Stein C, Duclos P, et al. How best to estimate the global burden of pertussis?external icon Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3(7):413–18.
  34. Wymann MN, Richard JL, Vidondo B, et al. Prospective pertussis surveillance in Switzerland, 1991–2006external icon. Vaccine. 2001;29(11):2058–65.
  35. Halperin SA, Wang EE, Law B, et al. Epidemiological features of pertussis in hospitalized patients in Canada, 1991–1997: Report of the Immunization Monitoring Program—Active (IMPACT)external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28(6):1238–43.
  36. Farizo KM, Cochi SL, Zell ER, et al. Epidemiological features of pertussis in the United States, 1980–1989external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:708–19.

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Signs, Symptoms, and Severity

  1. McNamara L, Skoff T, Faulkner A, et al. Reduced severity of pertussis in persons with age-appropriate pertussis vaccination – United States, 2010-2012external iconClin Infect Dis. 2017;65(5):811–8.
  2. Kilgore PE, Salim AM, Zervos MJ, et al. Pertussis: Microbiology, disease, treatment, and preventionexternal icon. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016;29(3):449–486.
  3. Marshall H, Clarke M, Rasiah K, et al. Predictors of disease severity in children hospitalized for pertussis during an epidemicexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(4):339–45.
  4. Barlow RS, Reynolds LE, Cieslak PR, et al. Vaccinated children and adolescents with pertussis infections have decreased illness severity and duration, Oregon 2010–2012external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(11):1523–9.
  5. Paisley RD, Blaylock J, Hartzell JD. Whooping cough in adults: An update on a reemerging infection.external icon Amr J Med. 2012;125(2):141–3.
  6. Goh A, Chong CY, Tee N, et al. Pertussis – An under-diagnosed disease with high morbidity in Singapore Childrenexternal icon. Vaccine. 2011;29:2503–7.
  7. Hochwald O, Bamberger ES, Rubin L, et al. A pertussis outbreak among daycare children in northern Israel: Who gets sick?external icon Isr Med Assoc J. 2010;12(5):283–6.
  8. Ghanaia RM, Karimi A, Sadeghi H, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of the World Health Organization pertussis clinical case definitionexternal icon. Intl J Infect Dis. 2010;14(12):e1072–5.
  9. Cornia PB, Hersh AL, Lipsky BA, et al. Does this coughing adolescent or adult patient have pertussis?external icon JAMA. 2010;304(8):890–6.
  10. Waters V, Jamieson F, Richardson SE, et al. Outbreak of atypical pertussis detected by polymerase chain reaction in immunized preschool-aged childrenexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(7):582–7.
  11. Shakib JH, Wyman L, Gesteland PH, et al. Should the pertussis case definition for public health reporting be refined?external icon J Public Health Manag Pract. 2009;15(6):479–84.
  12. Sotir MJ, Cappozzo DL, Warshauer DM, et al. A countywide outbreak of pertussis: initial transmission in a high school weight room with subsequent substantial impact on adolescents and adultsexternal icon. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(1):79–85.
  13. Cagney M, McIntyre PB, Heron L, et al. The relationship between pertussis symptomatology, incidence, and serology in adolescentsexternal icon. Vaccine. 2008;26(44):5547–53.
  14. Eidlitz-Markus T, Mimouni M, Zeharia A. Pertussis symptoms in adolescents and children versus infants: The influence of vaccination and ageexternal icon. Clin Pediatr. 2007;46(8):718–23.
  15. Briand V, Bonmarin I, Lévy-Bruhl D. Study of the risk factors for severe childhood pertussis based on hospital surveillance data.external icon Vaccine. 2007;25(41):7224–32.
  16. Harnden A, Grant C, Harrison T, et al. Whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: Prospective cohort study in primary care.external icon BMJ. 2006;333(7560):174–7.
  17. Ward JI, Cherry JD, Swei-Ju C, et al. Bordetella pertussis infections in vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescents and adults, as assessed in a national prospective randomized acellular pertussis vaccine trial (APERT).external icon Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:151–7.
  18. Narkeviciute I, Kavaliunaite E, Bernatoniene G, et al. Clinical presentation of pertussis in fully immunized children in Lithuaniaexternal icon. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:40.
  19. Tozzi AE, Ravá L, Ciofi ML, et al. Clinical presentation of pertussis in unvaccinated and vaccinated children in the first six years of lifeexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2003;112(5):1069–75.
  20. Gilberg S, Njamkepo E, Parent Du Châtelet I, et al. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults presenting with persistent cough in a French area with very high whole-cell vaccine coverageexternal icon. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(3):415–8.
  21. Senzilet LD, Halperin SC, Spika JS, et al. Pertussis is a frequent cause of prolonged cough illness in adults and adolescentsexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(12):1691–7.
  22. Stojanov S, Liese J, Belohradsky BH. Hospitalization and complications in children under 2 years of age with Bordetella pertussis infection.external icon Infection. 2000;28(2):106–10.
  23. Yih KW, Lett SM, des Vignes FN, et al. The increasing incidence of pertussis in Massachusetts adolescents and adults, 1989–1998external icon. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(5):1409–16.
  24. De Serres GS, Shadmani R, Duval B, et al. Morbidity of pertussis in adolescents and adultsexternal icon. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(1):174–9.
  25. Yaari E, Yafe-Zimerman Y, Schwartz SB, et al. Clinical manifestations of Bordetella pertussis infection in immunized children and young adultsexternal icon. Chest. 1999;115(5):1254–8.
  26. Stehr K, Cherry JD, Heininger U, et al. A comparative efficacy trial in Germany in infants who received either the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component DTP (DTaP) vaccine, the Lederle whole-cell component DTP vaccine, or DT vaccineexternal icon. Pediatrics. 1998;101(1 Pt 1):1–11.
  27. Langkamp DL, Davis JP. Increased risk of reported pertussis and hospitalization associated with pertussis in low-birth-weight childrenexternal icon. J Pediatr. 1996;128 (5 Pt1):654–9.
  28. Postels-Multani S, Schmitt HJ, Wirsing von Konig CH, et al. Symptoms and complications of pertussis in adultsexternal icon. Infection. 1995;23(3):139–42.
  29. Johnston ID, Anderson HR, Lambert HP, et al. Respiratory morbidity and lung function after whooping-coughexternal icon. Lancet. 1983;2(8359):1104–8.

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  1. Lee AD, Cassiday PK, Pawloski LC, et al. Clinical evaluation and validation of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection: Culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and anti-pertussis toxin IgG serology (IgG-PT)external icon. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0195979.
  2. Pawloski LC, Plikaytis BD, Martin MD, et al. Evaluation of commercial assays for single–point diagnosis of pertussis in the USexternal iconJ Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2016;6(3):e15–21.
  3. Faulkner AE, Skoff TH, Tondella ML, et al. Trends in pertussis diagnostic testing in the United States, 1990–2012external icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(1):39–44.
  4. Van der Zee A, Schellenkens JFP, Mooi FR. Laboratory diagnosis of pertussisexternal icon. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28(4):1005–26.
  5. Burgos-Rivera B, Lee AD, Bowden KE, et al. Evaluation of level of agreement in Bordetella species identification in three U.S. laboratories during a period of increased pertussisexternal icon. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(6):1842–7.
  6. Williams MM, Taylor TH, Warshauer DM, et al. Harmonization of Bordetella pertussis real–time PCR diagnostics in the United States in 2012external icon. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(1):118–23.
  7. Vaz-de-Lima LR, Martin MD, Pawloski LC, et al. Serodiagnosis as adjunct assay for pertussis infection in São Paulo, Brazil.external icon Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(5):636–40.
  8. World Health Organization. Laboratory manual for the diagnosis of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis/Bordetella parapertussis: Update 2014pdf iconexternal icon. 2014. WHO/IVB/14.03.
  9. Tatti KM, Martin SW, Boney KO, et al. Qualitative assessment of pertussis diagnostics in United States laboratoriesexternal icon. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2013;32(9):942–5.
  10. Pawloski LC, Kirkland KB, Baughman AL, et al. Does tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination interfere with serodiagnosis of pertussis infection?external icon Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(6):875–80.
  11. Kapasi A, Meade BD, Plikaytis B, et al. Comparative study of different sources of pertussis toxin (PT) as coating antigens in IgC anti–PT enzyme–linked immunosorbent assaysexternal icon. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(1):64–72.
  12. Njamkepo E, Bonacorsi S, Debruyne M, et al. Significant finding of Bordetella holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal samples from French patients with suspected pertussisexternal icon. J Clin. Microbiol. 2011;49(12):4347–8.
  13. Tatti KM, Sparks KN, Boney KO, et al. Novel multitarget real–time PCR assay for rapid detection of Bordetella species in clinical specimensexternal icon. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(12):4059–66.
  14. Tondella ML, Carlone GM, Messonnier N, et al. International Bordetella pertussis assay standardization and harmonization meeting report: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, US 19–20 July 2007external icon. Vaccine. 2009;27(6):803–14.
  15. Menzies SL, Kadwad V, Pawloski LC, et al. Development and analytical validation of an immunoassay for quantifying serum anti–pertussis toxin antibodies resulting from Bordetella pertussis infectionexternal icon. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16(12):1781–8.
  16. Cloud JL, Hymas W, Carroll KC. Impact of nasopharyngeal swab types on detection of Bordetella pertussis by PCR and culture.external icon J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(10):3838–40.

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Molecular Epidemiology

  1. Weigand MR, William MM, Peng Y, et al. Genomic survey of Bordetella pertussis diversityexternal icon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):780–78.
  2. Weignand MR, Pawloski LC, Peng Y, et al. Screening and genomic characterization of filamentous hemagglutinin-deficient Bordetella pertussisexternal icon. Infect Immun. 2018;86(4):pii: e00869-17.
  3. Gates I, DuVall M, Ju H, et al. Development of a qualitative assay for screening of Bordetella pertussis isolates for pertussis toxin productionexternal icon. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175326.
  4. Weigand MR, Peng Y, Loparev V, et al. The history of Bordetella pertussis genome evolution includes structural rearrangementexternal icon. J Bacteriol. 2017;199(8). pii: e00806016.
  5. Bowden KE, Weigand MR, Peng Y, et al. Genome structural diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis isolates from two recent U.S. whooping cough statewide epidemicsexternal icon. mSphere. 2016;1(3).pii: e00036–16.
  6. Breakwell L, Kelso P, Finley C, et al. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness in the setting of pertactin–deficient pertussisexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2016;137(5). pii: e20153973.
  7. Cassiday PK, Skoff TH, Jawahir S, et al. Changes in predominance of pulsed–field gel electrophoresis profiles of Bordetella pertussis isolates, United States, 2000–2012external icon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(3):442–8.
  8. Williams MM, Sen K, Weigand MR, et al. Bordetella pertussis strain lacking pertactin and pertussis toxinexternal icon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):319–22.
  9. Martin SW, Pawloski L, Williams M, et al. Pertactin–negative Bordetella pertussis strains: Evidence for a possible selective advantageexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(2):223–7.
  10. Safarchi A, Octavia S, Luu LD, et al. Pertactin negative Bordetella pertussis demonstrates higher fitness under vaccine selection pressure in a mixed infection modelexternal icon. Vaccine. 2015;33(46):6277–81.
  11. Hegerle N, Dore G, Guiso N. Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccineexternal icon. Vaccine. 2014;32(49):6597–600.
  12. Zeddeman A, van Gent M, Heuvelman CJ, et al. Investigations into the emergence of pertactin–deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates in six European countries, 1996–2012external icon. Euro Surveill. 2014;19(33):pii 20881.
  13. Bowden KE, Williams MM, Cassiday PK, et al. Molecular epidemiology of pertussis epidemic — Washington State, 2012.external icon J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(10):3549–57.
  14. Hegerle N, Guiso N.  Bordetella pertussis and pertactin–deficient clinical isolates: lessons for pertussis vaccinesexternal icon. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13(9):1135–46.
  15. Bart MJ, Harris SR, Advani A, et al. Global population structure and evolution of Bordetella pertussis and their relationship with vaccination.external icon MBio. 2014;22:5(2):e01074.
  16. Lam C, Octavia S, Ricafort L, et al. Rapid increase in pertactin–deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australiaexternal icon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(4):626–33.
  17. Pawloski LC, Queenan AM, Cassiday PK, et al. Prevalence and molecular characterization of pertactin–deficient Bordetella pertussis in the United Statesexternal icon. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(2):119–25.
  18. Queenan AM, Cassiday PK, Evangelista A. Pertactin–negative variants of Bordetella pertussis in the United Statesexternal icon. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(6):583–4.
  19. Schmidtke AJ, Boney KO, Martin SW, et al. Population diversity among Bordetella pertussis isolates, United States, 1935–2009.external icon Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1248–55.
  20. Mooi FR, van Loo IHM, van Gent M, et al. Bordetella pertussis strains with increased toxin production associated with pertussis resurgence.external icon Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1206–13.
  21. van Amersfoorth SCM, Schouls LM, van der Heide HGJ, et al. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis populations in European countries with different vaccination policiesexternal icon. J Clin Microbiol, 2005;43(6):2837–43.

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  1. Mandal S, Tatti KM, Woods-Stout D, et al. Pertussis pseudo-outbreak linked to specimens contaminated by Bordetella pertussis DNA from clinic surfacesexternal icon. Pediatr. 2012;129(2):e424 –30.
  2. Salimnia H, Lephart PR, Asmar BI, et al. Aerosolized vaccine as an unexpected source of false-positive Bordetella pertussis PCR resultsexternal icon. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2012;50(2):472 –4.
  3. Spokes PJ, Quinn HE, McAnulty JM. Review of the 2008-2009 pertussis epidemic in NSW: Notifications and hospitalisationsexternal icon. NSW Public Health Bull. 2010;21(7 –8):167 –73.
  4. Kirkland KB, Talbot EA, Lasky RA, et al. Outbreaks of respiratory illness mistakenly attributed to pertussis—New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Tennessee, 2004 –2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(33):837 –42.

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Source of Infection in Infants

  1. Curtis CR, Baughman AL, DeBolt C, et al. Risk factors associated with Bordetella pertussis among infants aged ≤4 months in the pre–Tdap Era – United States, 2002–2005external iconPediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;36(8):726–35.
  2. Skoff TH, Kenyon C, Cocoros N, et al. Sources of infant pertussis infections in the United Statesexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2015;136(4): 635–641.
  3. Bertilone C, Wallace T, Selvey LA. Finding the ‘who’ in whooping cough: Vaccinated siblings are important pertussis sources in infants 6 months of age and underexternal icon. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2014;38(3):E195–200.
  4. Wiley KE, Zuo Y, Macartney KK, McIntyre PB. Sources of pertussis infection in young infants: A review of key evidence informing targeting of the cocoon strategyexternal icon. Vaccine. 2013;31(4):618–25.
  5. de Greeff SC, Mooi FR, Westerhof A, et al. Pertussis disease burden in the household: How to protect young infantsexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(10):1339–45.
  6. Jardine A, Conaty SJ, Lowbridge C, et al. Who gives pertussis to infants? Source of infection for laboratory confirmed cases less than 12 months of age during an epidemic, Sydney, 2009external icon. Commun Dis Intell. 2010;34(2):116–21.
  7. Wendelboe AM, Njamkepo E, Bourillo A, et al. Transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infantsexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(4):293–9.
  8. Kowalzik F, Barbosa AR, Fernandez VR, et al. Prospective multinational study of pertussis infection in hospitalized infants and their household contactsexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(3):238–42.
  9. Bisgard KM, Pascual FB, Ehresmann KR, et al. Infant pertussis who was the source?external icon Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23(11):985–9.
  10. Mertsola J, Ruuskanen O, Eerola E, et al. Intrafamilial spread of pertussisexternal icon. J Ped. 1983;103(3):359–63.

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  1. Robinson SG, Liko J. The timing of pertussis cases in unvaccinated children in an outbreak year: Oregon 2012external icon. J Pediatr. 2017;183:159–63.
  2. Tiwari TS, Baughman AL, Clark TA. First pertussis vaccine dose and prevention of infant mortality.external icon Pediatrics. 2015;135(6):990–9.
  3. Zhang L, Prietsch SO, Axelsson I, et al. Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in childrenexternal icon. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:CD001478.
  4. Sheridan SL, McCall BJ, Davis CA, et al. Acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness for children during the 2009-2010 pertussis epidemic in Queenslandexternal icon. Med J Aust. 2014;200(6):334–8.
  5. Guiso N. Pertussis vaccination and whooping cough: And now what?external icon Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13(10):1163–5.
  6. Quinn HE, Snelling TL, Macartney KK, et al. Duration of protection after first dose of acellular pertussis vaccine in infantsexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):e513-9.
  7. Plotkin SA. Complex correlates of protection after vaccinationexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(10):1458–65.
  8. Misegades LK, Winter K, Harriman K, et al. Association of childhood pertussis with receipt of 5 doses of pertussis vaccine by time since last vaccine dose, California, 2010external icon. JAMA. 2012;308(20):2126-32.
  9. Clark TA, Messonnier NE, Hadler SC. Pertussis control: Time for something new?external icon Trends Microbiol. 2012;20(5):211–3.
  10. Nilsson L, Lepp T, von Segebaden K, et al. Pertussis vaccination in infancy lowers the incidence of pertussis disease and the rate of hospitalisation after one and two doses: Analyses of 10 years of pertussis surveillanceexternal icon. Vaccine. 2012;30(21):3239–47.
  11. Cherry JD. Why do pertussis vaccines fail?external icon Pediatrics. 2012;129(5):968–70.
  12. Ridda I, Yin JK, King C, et al. The importance of pertussis in older adults: A growing case for reviewing vaccination strategy in the elderlyexternal icon. Vaccine. 2012;30(48):6745–52.
  13. Ulloa-Gutierrez R. Pertussis vaccination in newborns.external icon Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8(2):153–7.
  14. Preziosi MP, Halloran ME. Effects of pertussis vaccination on transmission: Vaccine efficacy for infectiousnessexternal icon. Vaccine. 2003;21(17–18):1853–61.
  15. Juretzko P, von Kries R, Hermann M, et al. Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine assessed by hospital-based active surveillance in Germany.external icon Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(2):162–7.
  16. Aoyama T, Murase Y, Gonda T, et al. Type-specific efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccineexternal icon. Am J Dis Child. 1988;142(1):40–2.
  17. Grob PR, Crowder MJ, Robbins JF. Effect of vaccination on severity and dissemination of whooping coughexternal icon. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981;282(6280):1925–8.
  18. McKendrick NW, Gully PR, Geddes AM. Protection against pertussis by immunisationexternal icon. Br Med J. 1980;281(6252):1390–1.

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  1. Klein NP, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Waning Tdap effectiveness in adolescentsexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2016; 137(3): e20153326.
  2. Acosta A, DeBolt C, Tasslimi A, et al. Tdap vaccine effectiveness in adolescents during the 2012 Washington state pertussis epidemic.external icon Pediatrics. 2015;135(6):981–9.
  3. Koepke R, Eickhoff JC, Ayele RA, et al. Estimating the effectiveness of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for preventing pertussis: evidence of rapidly waning immunity and difference in effectiveness by Tdap brandexternal icon. J. Infect Dis. 2014;210(6):942–53.
  4. Sheridan SL, Frith K, Snelling TL, et al. Waning vaccine immunity in teenagers primed with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine: Recent epidemiologyexternal icon. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13(9):1081–106.
  5. Liko J, Robison SG, Cieslak PR. Pertussis vaccine performance in an epidemic year-Oregon, 2012external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(2):261–3.
  6. Klein NP, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Comparative effectiveness of acellular versus whole-cell pertussis vaccines in teenagersexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2013;131(6):e1716–22.
  7. Baxter R, Bartlett J, Rowhani-Rahbar A, et al. Effectiveness of pertussis vaccines for adolescents and adults: case-control studyexternal icon. BMJ. 2013;347:f4249.
  8. Liko J, Robison SG, Cieslak PR. Priming with whole-cell versus acellular pertussis vaccineexternal icon. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(6):581–2.
  9. Skoff TH, Cohn AC, Clark TA, et al. Early impact of the US Tdap vaccination program on pertussis trendsexternal icon. Arch Pediat. Adolesc Med. 2012;166(4):344–9.
  10. Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. The impact of adolescent pertussis immunization, 2004–2009: Lessons from Australia.external icon Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(9):666–74.
  11. Wei SC, Tatti K, Cushing K, et al. Effectiveness of adolescent and adult tetanus, reduced-dose diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine against pertussisexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(3):315–21.
  12. Rank C, Quinn HE, McIntyre PB. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness after mass immunization of high school students in Australiaexternal icon. Pediatr Infec Dis J. 2009;28(2):152–3.

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Pregnant Women

  1. Romanin V, Acosta AM, Juarez MDV, et al. Maternal vaccination in Argentina: Tdap vaccine effectiveness during pregnancy in preventing pertussis in infants less than 2 months of ageexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Mar 16. pii: ciz217. [Epub ahead of print].
  2. Vaz-de-Lima LRA, Sato HK, Fernandes EG, et al. Association between the timing of maternal vaccination and newborns’ anti-pertussis toxin antibody levelsexternal icon. Vaccine. 2019;37(36):5474–80.
  3. Skoff T, Blain A, Watt, J, et al. The impact of the U.S. maternal Tdap vaccination program on preventing pertussis in infants <2 months of age: a case-control evaluationexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(12):1977–83.
  4. Baxter R, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Effectiveness of vaccination during pregnancy to prevent infant pertussisexternal icon. Pediatrics 2017;139(5): e20164091.
  5. Gkenki D, Katsakiori P, Marangos M, et al. Maternal vaccination against pertussis: A systematic review of recent literatureexternal iconArch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2017;102(5):F456–63.
  6. Winter K, Nickell S, Powell M, et al. Effectiveness of prenatal versus postpartum tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination in preventing infant pertussisexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(1):3–8.
  7. Sobanjo-Ter MA, Duclos P, McIntyre P, et al.  Assessing the evidence for maternal pertussis immunization: A report from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation symposium on pertussis infant disease burden in low and lower-middle-income countriesexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):S123–33.
  8. Sukumaran K, McCarthy NL, Kharbanda EO, et al. Safety of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccinations in pregnancyexternal icon. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(5):1069–74.
  9. Sukumaran K, McCarthy NL, Kharbanda EO, et al. Association of Tdap vaccination with acute events and adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with prior tetanus-containing immunizationsexternal icon. JAMA. 2015; 314(15):1581–7.
  10. Englund JA. Maternal immunization – Promises and concernsexternal icon. Vaccine. 2015;33(47):6372–3.
  11. Healy CM, Nq N, Taylor RS, et al. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine uptake during pregnancy in a metropolitan tertiary care centerexternal icon. Vaccine. 2015;33(38)4983–7.
  12. Dabrera G, Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, et al. A case-control study to estimate the effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in protecting newborn infants in England and Wales, 2012–2013external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(3):333–7.
  13. Vizzotti C, Neyro S, Katz N, et al. Maternal immunization in Argentina: A storyline from the perspective of a middle-income country.  Vaccine. 2015;33(47):6413–9.
  14. Kharbanda EO, Vazquez-Benitez G, Lipkind HS, et al. Evaluation of the association of maternal pertussis vaccination with obstetric events and birth outcomesexternal icon. JAMA. 2014;312(18):1897–1904.
  15. McIntyre PB, Clark TA. Pertussis vaccine in pregnancy – first dose for every infant?external icon Lancet. 2014;384(9953):1484–6.
  16. Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Campbell H, et al. Effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in England: An observational study.external icon Lancet. 2014;384(9953):1521–8.
  17. Kharbanda EO, Vazquez-Benitez G, Lipkind H, et al. Receipt of pertussis vaccine during pregnancy across 7 Vaccine Safety Datalink Sitesexternal icon. Prev Med. 2014;67:316–9.
  18. Housey M, Zhang F, Miller C, et al. Vaccination with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine of pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid—Michigan, 2011–2013MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(38):839–42.
  19. Donegan K, King B, Bryan P. Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: Observational studyexternal icon. BMJ. 2014;349:g4219.
  20. Munoz FM, Bond NH, Maccato M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization during pregnancy in mothers and infants: a randomized clinical trial.external icon JAMA. 2014;311(17):1760–9.
  21. Shakib JH, Korgenski K, Sheng X, et al. Tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccine during pregnancy: Pregnancy and infant health outcomesexternal icon. J Pediatr.2013;163(5):1422–6.
  22. Hardy-Fairbanks AJ, Pan SJ, Decker MD, et al. Immune responses in infants whose mothers received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy.external icon Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(11):1257–60.
  23. Zheteyeva YA, Moro PL, Tepper NK, et al. Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant womenexternal icon. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207(1):59.e1-7.
  24. Gall SA, Myers J, Pichichero M. Maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine: effect on maternal and neonatal serum antibody levels.external icon Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(4):334.e1-5.
  25. Halperin BA, Morris A, Mackinnon-Cameron D, et al. Kinetics of the antibody response to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in women of childbearing age and postpartum womenexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(9):885–92.
  26. Leuridan E, Hens N, Peeters N, et al. Effect of a prepregnancy pertussis booster dose on maternal antibody titers in young infantsexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(7):608–10.
  27. Mooi FR, de Greeff SC. The case for maternal vaccination against pertussisexternal icon. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7(9):614–24.
  28. Van Rie A, Wendelboe AM, Englund JA. Role of maternal pertussis antibodies in infantsexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(5 Suppl):S62–5.
  29. Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M. Tetanus toxoid and congenital abnormalities.external icon Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1999;64(3):253–8.
  30. Englund JA, Anderson EL, Reed GF, et al. The effect of maternal antibody on the serologic response and the incidence of adverse reactions after primary immunization with acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoidsexternal icon. Pediatrics. 1995;96(3 Pt 2):580–4.
  31. Silveira CM, Cáceres VM, Dutra MG, et al. Safety of tetanus toxoid in pregnant women: a hospital-based case-control study of congenital anomaliesexternal icon. Bull World Health Org. 1995;73(5):605–8.

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United States Pertussis Vaccine Recommendations

You can find all U.S. vaccine recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on the following CDC web pages:

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Cocoon Strategy

  1. Blain AE, Lewis M, Banarjee E, et al.  An assessment of the cocooning strategy for preventing infant pertussis-United States, 2011external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2016:63(suppl 4):S221–6.
  2. Healy CM, Rench MA, Wootton SH, et al. Evaluation of the impact of a pertussis cocooning program on infant pertussis infectionexternal icon. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(1):22–6.
  3. Quinn HE, Snelling TL, Habig A, et al. Parental Tdap boosters and infant pertussis: a case-control studyexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2014;134(4):713–20.
  4. Urwyler P, Heininger U. Protecting newborns from pertussis — The challenge of complete cocooningexternal icon. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):397.
  5. Rosenblum E, McBane S, Wang W, et al. Protecting newborns by immunizing family members in a hospital-based vaccine clinic: a successful Tdap cocooning program during the 2010 California pertussis epidemicexternal icon. Public Health Rep. 2014;129(3):245–51.
  6. Mills B, Fensterheim L, Taitel M, et al. Pharmacist-led Tdap vaccination of close contacts of neonates in a women’s hospital.external icon Vaccine. 2014;32(4):521–5.
  7. Lugnér AK, van der Maas N, van Boven M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect newborns against pertussis: comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategiesexternal icon. Vaccine. 2013;31(46):5392–7.
  8. Carrico CA, O’Keefe C. Protecting infants against pertussis: the cocooning strategy in practiceexternal icon. Nurse Pract. 2013;38(3):40–5.
  9. Wiley KE, Zuo Y, Macartney KK, et al. Sources of pertussis infection in young infants: A review of key evidence informing targeting of the cocoon strategyexternal icon. Vaccine. 2013;31(4):618–25.
  10. Munoz F, Englund J. Infant pertussis: Is cocooning the answer?external icon Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(9):893–6.
  11. Healy CM, Rench MA, Baker CJ. Implementation of cocooning against pertussis in a high-risk populationexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(2):157–62.
  12. Westra TA, de Vries R, Tamminga JJ, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of various pertussis vaccination strategies primarily aimed at protecting infants in the Netherlandsexternal icon. Clin Ther. 2010;32(8):1479–95.
  13. Coudeville L, Van Rie A, Getsios D, et al. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects (pertussis control strategies)external icon. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(7):e6284.
  14. Walter EB,external iconAllred N, Rowe-West B, et al. Cocooning infants: Tdap immunization for new parents in the pediatric officeexternal icon. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9(5):344–7.
  15. Healy CM, Rench MA, Castagnini LA, et al. Pertussis immunization in a high-risk postpartum populationexternal icon. Vaccine. 2009;27(41):5599–602.
  16. McIntyre P, Wood N. Pertussis in early infancy: Disease burden and preventive strategiesexternal icon. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22(3):215–23.
  17. Gerbie MV, Tan TQ. Pertussis disease in new mothers: Effect on young infants and strategies for prevention.external icon Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(2 Pt 1):399–401.
  18. Coudeville L, Van Rie A, Andre Pl. Adult pertussis vaccination strategies and their impact on pertussis in the United States: evaluation of routine and targeted (cocoon) strategiesexternal icon. Epidemiol Infect. 2008; 136(5):604–20.
  19. Lee GM, Riffelmann M, Wirsing von Konig CR. Cost-effectiveness of adult pertussis vaccination in Germanyexternal icon. Vaccine. 2008;26(29–30):3673–9.
  20. Knuf M, Schmitt HJ, Wolter J, et al. Neonatal vaccination with an acellular pertussis vaccine accelerates the acquisition of pertussis antibodies in infantsexternal icon. J Pediatrics. 2008;152(5):655–60.
  21. Van Rie A, Hethcote HW. Adolescent and adult pertussis vaccination: computer simulations of five new strategiesexternal icon. Vaccine. 2004;22(23–24):3154–65.

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Page last reviewed: November 18, 2019