Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

References

The materials used to develop the Essentials for Parenting Toddlers and Preschoolers resources are based on the parent management training literature. Parent management training refers to programs that teach parents behavior management techniques and positive interaction skills. The goal of these programs is to teach parents positive parenting skills that decrease parent and child frustration and improve the parent-child relationship. Parent management training is an extensively studied approach and is effective in reducing children’s oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. It is also effective in reducing child maltreatment risk factors and abuse. Research has consistently demonstrated that many of the benefits of these programs are maintained over time. Examples of research about these programs include:

  • Chaffin, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., Valle, L. A., & Gurwitch, R. (2011). A combined motivation and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy package reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling field trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 84-95.
  • Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, T., & … Bonner, B. L. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 500-510.
  • Dumas, J. E. (1989). Treating antisocial behavior in children: Child family approaches. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 197-222.
  • Forehand, R., & Long, N. (1988). Outpatient treatment of the acting out child: Procedures, long-term follow-up data, and clinical problems. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, 129-177.
  • Gershater-Molko, R. M., Lutzker, J. R., & Wesch, D. (2002). Using recidivism data to evaluate project SafeCare: Teaching bonding, safety, and health care skills to parents. Child Maltreatment, 7(3), 277-285.
  • Kazdin, A. E. (1985). Treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  • Letarte, M. J., Normandeau, S., & Allard, J. (2010). Effectiveness of a parent training program “Incredible Years” in a child protection service. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(4), 253-261.
  • Long, P., Forhand, R., Wierson, M., & Morgan, A. (1994). Does parent training with young noncompliant children have long-term effects? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 101-107.
  • Miller, G. E., & Prinz, R. J. (1990). Enhancement of social learning family interventions for child conduct disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 291-307.
  • Moreland, J. R., Schwebel, A.I., Beck, S., & Wells, R. (1982). Parents as therapists: A review of the behavior therapy parent training literature – 1975 to 1981. Behavior Modification, 6, 250-276.
  • Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1-12.

Listed below are several of the parent management training programs on which these resources are based. If parents have children with severe behavior problems, the strategies provided herein will likely need to be supplemented with the intensive services of a provider who is trained to work with parents and children.

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)

http://www.pcit.org

PCIT improves the quality of parent-child relationships and changes how parents and children interact with one another. Parents learn specific skills to build a nurturing and secure relationship with their children while increasing their children’s desirable behavior and decreasing negative behavior. Coaches work directly with parent-child pairs to help them learn new skills. In addition to impacting child maltreatment outcomes, this program has shown improvements in parenting behavior and child behavior problems.

Treatment Manuals
  • Hembree-Kigin, T., & McNeil, C. (1995). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. New York: Plenum.
  • McNeil, C. B., & Hembree-Kigin, T. L. (2010). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, 2nd ed. New York: Springer.
  • Eyberg, S., & Funderburk, B. (2011). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy protocol, 2011. Gainesville, FL: PCIT International.
Treatment Outcome Research
  • Boggs, S. R., Eyberg, S. M., Edwards, D., Rayfield, A., Jacobs, J., Bagner, D., & Hood, K. (2004). Outcomes of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A comparison of dropouts and treatment completers one to three years after treatment. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 26(4), 1-22.
  • Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 179-188.
  • Chaffin, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., Valle, L. A., & Gurwitch, R. (2011). A combined motivation and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy package reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling field trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 84-95.
  • Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, T., & … Bonner, B. L. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 500-510.
  • Eisenstadt, T. H., Eyberg, S., McNeil, C. B., Newcomb, K., & Funderburk, B. (1993). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Relative effectiveness of two stages and overall treatment outcome. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 42-51.
  • Eyberg, S. M., Funderburk, B. W., Hembree-Kigin, T. L., McNeil, C. B., Querido, J. G., & Hood, K. (2001). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: One and two year maintenance of treatment effects in the family. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 23, 1-20.
  • Funderburk, B. W., Eyberg, S. M., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C., Hembree-Kigin, T., & Capage, L. (1998). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Maintenance of treatment effects in the school setting. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 20, 17-38.
  • Hood, K., & Eyberg, S.M. (2003). Outcomes of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Mothers' reports on maintenance three to six years after treatment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 419-429.
  • McNeil, C., Eyberg, S., Eisenstadt, T., Newcomb, K., & Funderburk, B. (1991). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting.Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 140-151.
  • McNeil, C. B., Capage, L. C., Bahl, A., & Blanc, H. (1999). Importance of early intervention for disruptive behavior problems: Comparison of treatment and waitlist-control groups. Early Education & Development, 10, 445-454.
  • Nixon, R. D. V. (2001). Changes in hyperactivity and temperament in behaviourally disturbed preschoolers after Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Behaviour Change, 18, 168-176.
  • Nixon, R. D. V., Sweeny, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 263-271.
  • Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 479-495.

Triple P (Positive Parenting Program)

http://www.triplep-america.com

Triple P is a system of parenting and family support to address parents’ varied needs. There are five levels of intervention, ranging from media strategies to increase awareness and acceptance, to brief consultation on common developmental issues, to intensive approaches to address problems with parenting and child behavior. In addition to impacting child maltreatment outcomes, this program has shown improvements in parenting behavior and child behavior problems.

Treatment Outcome Research
  • Bodenmann, G., Cina, A., Ledermann, T., & Sanders, M. R. (2008). The efficacy of Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in improving parenting and child behavior: A comparison with two other treatment conditions. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 46, 411-427.
  • Bor, W., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on preschool children with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional/hyperactive difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 571-587.
  • deGraaf, I., Speetjens, P., Smit, F., de Wolff, M., & Tavecchio, L. (2008a). Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis. Behavior Modification, 32, 714-735.
  • de Graaf, I., Speetjens, P., Smit, F., de Wolff, M., & Tavecchio, L. (2008b). Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on parenting: A meta-analysis. Family Relations, 57, 553-566.
  • Leung, C., Sanders, MR., Leung, S., Mak, R., & Lau, J. (2003). An outcome evaluation of the implementation of the Triple P – Positive Parenting Program in Hong Kong. Family Process, 42(4), 531-544.
  • Nowak, C., & Heinrichs, N. (2008). A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program using hierarchical linear modeling: Effectiveness and moderating variables. Clinical Child & Family Psychology, 11, 114-144.
  • Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1-12.
  • Roberts, C., Mazzucchelli, T., Studman, L., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Behavioral family intervention for children with developmental and behavioral problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 180-193.
  • Sanders, M. R. (2008). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 506-517.
  • Sanders, M. R., Ralph, A., Sofronoff, K., Gardiner, P., Thompson, R., Dwyer, S., & Bidwell, K. (2008). Every Family: A population approach to reducing behavioral and emotional problems in children making the transition to school. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29, 197-222.
  • Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L., & Bor, W. (2000). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 624-640.
  • Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 479-495.

Incredible Years

http://www.incredibleyears.com

The Incredible Years programs for parents, teachers, and children promotes emotional and social competence with the goal to prevent, reduce, and treat aggression and emotional problems in children 0 to 12 years old. The parent training component emphasizes parenting skills and approaches known to promote children’s social competence, reduce behavior problems, and improve children’s academic skills.

Treatment Outcome Research
  • McGilloway, S., Ni Mhaille, G., Bywater, T., Furlong, M., Leckey, Y., Kelly, P., Comiskey, C., & Donnelly, M. (2012). A parenting intervention for childhood behavioral problems: A randomized controlled trial in disadvantaged community-based settings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(1), 116-127.
  • Metinga, A. T. A., Orobio de Castro, B., & Matthys, W. (2013). Effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 901-913.
  • Perrin, E. C., Sheldrick, R. C., McMenamy, J. M., Henson, B. S., & Carter, A. S. (2014). Improving parenting skills for families of young children in pediatric settings: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 16-24.
  • Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (2003). Follow-up of children who received the Incredible Years intervention for oppositional-defiant disorder: Maintenance and prediction of 2-year outcome. Behavior Therapy, 34, 471-491. 
  • Webster-Stratton, C. (1984). A randomized trial of two parent-training programs for families with conduct-disordered children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(4), 666-678. 
  • Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Long-term follow-up of families with young conduct problem children: From preschool to grade school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(2), 144-149.
  • Webster-Stratton, C. (1992). Individually administered videotape parent training: Who benefits? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16(1), 31-35. 
  • Webster-Stratton, C. (1994). Advancing videotape parent training: A comparison study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 583-593.
  • Webster-Stratton, C., & Bywater, T. (2014). Parents and teachers working together. Better: Evidence-based Education, 6(2), 16-17. 
  • Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, J. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2011). Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(2), 191-203. 
  • Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, J. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2013). One-year follow-up of combined parent and child intervention for young children with ADHD.  Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, 251-261.
  • Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105-124.
  • Webster-Stratton, C., Rinaldi, J., & Reid, J. M. (2011). Long-term outcomes of Incredible Years parenting program: Predictors of adolescent adjustment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16, 38-46.
TOP