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Epidemiology and Surveillance

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  • Murdoch ME, Asuzu MC, Hagan M, et al. Onchocerciasis: the clinical and epidemiological burden of skin disease in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:283–96.
  • Abiose A. Onchocercal eye disease and the impact of Mectizan treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998;92(Suppl 1):S11–22.
  • Lipner, E.M., M.A. Law, E. Barnett, J.S. Keystone, F. von Sonnenburg, L. Loutan, D.R. Prevots, A.D. Klion, T.B. Nutman, and N. for the GeoSentinel Surveillance. 2007. Filariasis in Travelers Presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 1:e88.

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  • Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ. Laboratory diagnosis of filariasis. Clin Lab Med 1991;11:977–1010.
  • Weil, G.J., C. Steel, F. Liftis, B.W. Li, G. Mearns, E. Lobos, and T.B. Nutman. 2000. A rapid-format antibody card test for diagnosis of onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis 182:1796-1799.
  • Udall DN. Recent updates on onchocerciasis: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2007: 44: 53-60.
  • Stingl P. Onchocerciasis: developments in diagnosis, treatment and control. Int J Dermatol 2009; 48: 393-396.

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  • Drugs for parasitic infections. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2007;5(Suppl):e1–15.
  • Hoerauf H, Mand S, Adjei O, et al. Depletion of Wolbachia endobacteria in Onchocerca volvulus by doxycycline and microfilaridermia after ivermectin treatment. Lancet. 2001;357:1415–6.
  • Basanez, M.G., S.D. Pion, E. Boakes, J.A. Filipe, T.S. Churcher, and M. Boussinesq. 2008. Effect of single-dose ivermectin on Onchocerca volvulus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 8:310-322.
  • Hoerauf, A., S. Specht, Y. Marfo-Debrekyei, M. Buttner, A.Y. Debrah, S. Mand, L. Batsa, N. Brattig, P. Konadu, C. Bandi, R. Fimmers, O. Adjei, and D.W. Buttner. 2009. Efficacy of 5-week doxycycline treatment on adult Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitol Res 104:437-447.

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Prevention & Control

  • Gonzalez RJ, Cruz-Ortiz N, Rizzo N et al. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala. PloS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(3): e404.
  • Lindblade KA, Arana B, Zea-Flores G, et al. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Santa Rose focus of Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77(2):334-341.
    Thylefors, B., and M. Alleman. 2006. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100:733-746.
  • Katabarwa MN, Eyamba A, Chouaibou M, et al. Does onchocerciasis transmission take place in hypoendemic areas? A study from the North Region of Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health 2010.
  • Traore MA, Sarr MD, Badji A et al. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa : Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2012; 6(9): e1825.
  • WHO. Onchocerciasis and its control. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on onchocerciasis control. WHO Technical Report Series 852, 1995.

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