About Overdose Data to Action

At a glance

  • In the United States, nearly 300 lives are lost to drugs each day.
  • Overdose Data to Action (OD2A) supports jurisdictions in implementing prevention activities and in collecting accurate, comprehensive, and timely data on nonfatal and fatal overdoses and in using those data to enhance programmatic and surveillance efforts.
  • OD2A focuses on understanding and tracking the complex and changing nature of the drug overdose crisis by seamlessly integrating data and prevention strategies.
Supporting states and local communities

Linking trends with tactics

CDC launched the first multiyear OD2A cooperative agreement in 2019 with 66 recipients (referred to as jurisdictions) from state, territorial, county, and city health departments. In August 2023, CDC awarded new five-year cooperative agreements to 90 jurisdictions under two distinct OD2A programs, one designed for states, and one designed specifically for localities and territories.

CDC created OD2A in States and OD2A: LOCAL to:

  • Address the evolving epidemiology of the drug overdose crisis.
  • Close identified gaps in prevention activities.
  • Apply lessons learned from the previous OD2A funding opportunity.
  • Leverage the differing roles and spheres of influence state and local health departments and their partners have.

Applying the Overdose Data to Action framework

Diagram titled “OD2A Data to Action Framework: Reducing Overdoses and Health Disparities:” There is a purple rectangle with four smaller rectangles inside. At the center, there are bidirectional arrows connecting four words: Analyze, Prioritize, Evaluate, and Implement. Inside those arrows, there is text that says, “Engage Partners & People with Lived Experience.” The top left rectangle has text saying, “SYNTHESIZE AND ANALYZE data to inform action.” The top right rectangle has text saying, “PRIORITIZE Feasible, Evidence-Informed, and Impactful Interventions.” The bottom left rectangle has text saying, “EVALUATE Strategies and Impact and Make Changes as Needed.” The bottom right rectangle has text saying, “IMPLEMENT Evidence-Informed and Responsive Programs.”
The OD2A framework is centered around engaging partners and people with lived experience.

OD2A is guided by a data to action framework. Data to action means using different types of data to select, improve, and scale up drug overdose prevention programs and policies. These data include surveillance data, process and outcome evaluation data, and data from partners including those who use drugs or have lived experience with drug use. In addition, jurisdictions explore how they can use data from focus groups, community meetings, or partner interactions to inform or adapt surveillance data collection or analysis.

At the core of this model is a focus on health equity and reducing health disparities by engaging partners and integrating people with lived experience into all components of the work. Funded jurisdictions will be able to respond more quickly, more effectively, and more equitably to their constituents' needs, using data to drive action steps that reduce overdose deaths and substance use-related harms.

In partnership with CDC, jurisdictions focus on some or all of the following strategies:

Surveillance Strategies

Enhanced surveillance strategies enable jurisdictions to track nonfatal and fatal overdoses involving opioids and/or stimulants and polysubstance use, and identify emerging drug threats:

OD2A in States
  • Required: Overdose surveillance infrastructure
  • Required: Morbidity surveillance
  • Required: Mortality surveillance
  • Optional and competitive: Biosurveillance
  • Optional and competitive: Data linkage
  • Required: Overdose surveillance infrastructure
  • Optional and competitive: Toxicologic testing of drug products and/or paraphernalia
  • Optional and competitive: Surveillance of linkage to and retention in care

Prevention Strategies

Evidence-based prevention strategies are aligned with shifts in the overdose crisis, including changes in the illegal drug supply and a rise in stimulant and polysubstance use:

OD2A in States
  • Required: Clinician/health system engagement and health IT/PDMP enhancement
  • Required: Public safety partnerships/interventions
  • Required: Harm reduction
  • Required: Community-based linkage to care
  • Required in community, public safety, and healthcare settings: Linkage to and retention in care
  • Required in community, public safety, and healthcare settings: Harm reduction
  • Required in healthcare settings: Clinician and health systems best practices
  • Optional: Stigma reduction
  • Optional: Health IT enhancements