Research References

CDC uses findings from nonpharmaceutical intervention (NPI) research to ensure that our guidance and recommendations are based on scientific evidence. CDC conducts and supports research to understand the feasibility, effectiveness, and secondary effects of implementing NPIs during a flu pandemic.

The following references represent a select subset of scientific articles by CDC and other researchers that contribute to the NPI body of literature. These references describe the use of NPIs as a public health strategy during a flu pandemic, and provide evidence-based information about the effectiveness of NPIs in slowing the spread of seasonal or pandemic flu. The research also presents NPI implementation issues (i), including secondary effects, that may require advance planning and preparation.

The references are listed by topic area, in alphabetical order by first author’s last name.

Personal NPIs

Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:1372-81.External

Basurto-Davila R. Community mitigation strategies: a review of the evidence. Presented at: Decision Making for Using Community Mitigation Measures; 2011 January, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. (i) Cdc-pdf[PDF – 32 pages]External

Bischoff WE, Swett K, Leng I, Peters TR. Exposure to influenza virus aerosols during routine patient care. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1037-46. (i)External

Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:257-65. (i)External

Chan EY, Cheng CK, Tam G, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Hong Kong population towards human A/H7N9 influenza pandemic preparedness, China, 2014. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:943. (i)External

Cowling BJ, Ip DK, Fang VJ, et al. Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108850. (i)External

Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Fraser C, Cajka JC, Cooley PC, Burke DS. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature. 2006;442:448-52.External

Godoy P, Castilla J, Delgado-Rodríguez M, et al. Effectiveness of hand hygiene and provision of information in preventing influenza cases requiring hospitalization. Prev Med. 2012;54:434-9.External

Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J, et al. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:285-91.External

Jefferson T, Del Mar C, Dooley L, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub3.External

Kaewchana S, Simmerman M, Somrongthong R, Suntarattiwong P, Lertmaharit S, Chotipitayasunondh T. Effect of intensive hand washing education on hand washing behaviors in Thai households with an influenza-positive child in urban Thailand. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012;24:577-85. (i)External

Lau CH, Springston EE, Sohn MW, et al. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:52.External

Liu M, Ou J, Zhang L, et al. Protective effect of hand-washing and good hygienic habits against seasonal influenza: a case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(11):e3046.External

Meilicke G, Riedmann K, Biederbick W, Müller U, Wierer T, Bartels C. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008-2009. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:959. (i)External

Mitchell T, Massoudi M, Swerdlow DL, et al. Swine flu in college: early campus response to outbreak control measures. Am J Health Behav. 2014;38:448-64. (i)External

Park JH, Cheong HK, Son DY, Kim SU, Ha CM. Perceptions and behaviors related to hand hygiene for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission among Korean university students during the peak pandemic period. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:222. (i)External

Priest P, McKenzie JE, Audas R, Poore M, Brunton C, Reeves L. Hand sanitiser provision for reducing illness absences in primary school children: a cluster randomised trial. PLoS Med. 2014;11(8):e1001700.External

Savolainen-Kopra C, Haapakoski J, Peltola PA, et al. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial. Trials. 2012;13:10.External

Stebbins S, Stark JH, Vukotich CJ Jr. Compliance with a multilayered nonpharmaceutical intervention in an urban elementary school setting. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2010;16:316-24. (i)External

Stedman-Smith M, DuBois CL, Grey SF, et al. Outcomes of a pilot hand hygiene randomized cluster trial to reduce communicable infections among US office-based employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(4):374-80.External

SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Bekheit MM, Lubell K. The public’s response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:e65. (i)External

SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Ward JRM, Rapoport R, Kahn E, Kohl K. Public response to the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: a polling study in five countries. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:845-50. (i)External

Talaat M, Afifi S, Dueger E, et al. Effects of hand hygiene campaigns on incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza and absenteeism in schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:619-25.External

Timpka T, Spreco A, Gursky E, Eriksson O, Dahlström Ö, Strömgren M. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e91060. (i)External

Tuladhar E, Hazeleger WC, Koopmans M, et al. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants. J Hosp Infect. 2015;90:226-34. (i)External

Vukotich CJ Jr, Coulborn RM, Aragon TJ, et al. Findings, gaps, and future direction for research in nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:e2. (i)External

Warren-Gash C, Fragaszy E, Hayward AC. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2012;7:738-49.External

Willmott M, Nicholson A, Busse H, MacArthur GJ, Brookes S, Campbell R. Effectiveness of hand hygiene interventions in reducing illness absence among children in educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2016;101(1):42-50.External

Wong VW, Cowling BJ, Aiello AE. Hand hygiene and risk of influenza virus infections in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:922-32.External

Wu JT, Riley S, Fraser C, Leung GM. Reducing the impact of the next influenza pandemic using household-based public health interventions. PLoS Med. 2006;3(9):e261.External

Wu S, Ma C, Yang Z, et al. Hygiene behaviors associated with influenza-like illness among adults in Beijing, China: a large, population-based survey. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148448.External

Aburto NJ, Pevzner E, Lopez-Ridaura R, et al. Knowledge and adoption of community mitigation efforts in Mexico during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Am J Prev Med. 2010; 39(5), 395-402.External

Aiello AE, Murray GF, Perez V, et al. Mask use, hand hygiene, and seasonal influenza-like illness among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:491-8.External

Aiello AE, Perez V, Coulborn RM, Davis BM, Uddin M, Monto AS. Facemasks, hand hygiene, and influenza among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29744.External

Bin-Reza F, Lopez VC, Nicoll A, Chamberland ME. The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012;6:257-67.External

Canini L, Andreoletti L, Ferrari P, et al. Surgical mask to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e13998.External

CowlingBJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:437-46.External

Cowling BJ, Fung RO, Cheng CK, et al. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PLoS One. 2008;3(5):e2101.External

Cowling BJ, Zhou Y, Ip DKM, Leung GM, Aiello AE. Face masks to prevent influenza transmission: a systematic review. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:449-56.External

Davies A, Thompson KA, Giri K, Kafatos G, Walker J, Bennett A. Testing the efficacy of homemade masks: would they protect in an influenza pandemic? Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7:413-8.External

Johnson DF, Druce JD, Birch C, Grayson ML. A quantitative assessment of the efficacy of surgical and N95 masks to filter influenza virus in patients with acute influenza infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:275-7.External

Kavanagh AM, Bentley RJ, Mason KE, et al. Sources, perceived usefulness and understanding of information disseminated to families who entered home quarantine during the H1N1 pandemic in Victoria, Australia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:2. (i)External

Lai AC, Poon CK, Cheung AC. Effectiveness of facemasks to reduce exposure hazards for airborne infections among general populations. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:938-48.External

Li X, Geng W, Tian H, Lai D. Was mandatory quarantine necessary in China for controlling the 2009 H1N1 pandemic? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:4690-700.External

Li Y, Guo YP, Wong KC, Chung WY, Gohel MD, Leung HM. Transmission of communicable respiratory infections and facemasks. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2008;1:17-27.External

MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA. Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings. BMJ. 2015;350:h694.External

Milton DK, Fabian MP, Cowling BJ, Grantham ML, McDevitt JJ. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(3):e1003205.External

Rothstein MA, Talbott MK. Encouraging compliance with quarantine: a proposal to provide job security and income replacement. Am J Public Health. 2007;97 Suppl 1:S49-56. (i)External

Sim SW, Moey KS, Tan NC. The use of facemasks to prevent respiratory infection: a literature review in the context of the Health Belief Model. Singapore Med J. 2014;55:160-7. (i)External

Simmerman JM, Suntarattiwong P, Levy J, et al. Findings from a household randomized controlled trial of hand washing and face masks to reduce influenza transmission in Bangkok, Thailand. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011;5:256-67.External

Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink SB, et al. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomized trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:26.External

Tognotti E. Lessons from the history of quarantine, from plague to influenza A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:254-9.External

Wada K, Oka-Ezoe K, Smith DR. Wearing face masks in public during the influenza season may reflect other positive hygiene practices in Japan. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1065. (i)External

Community NPIs

Besculides M, Heffernan R, Mostashari F, et al. Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:105.External

Caley P, Philp DJ, McCracken K. Quantifying social distancing arising from pandemic influenza. J R Soc Interface. 2008;5:631-9.External

Chao DL, Halloran ME, Longini IM Jr. School opening dates predict pandemic influenza (A) H1N1 epidemics in the USA. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:877-80.External

Chowell G, Echevarría-Zuno S, Viboud C, et al. Characterizing the epidemiology of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. PLoS Med. 2011;8(5):e1000436.External

Cohen NJ, Callahan DB, Gonzalez V, et al. Respiratory illness in households of school-dismissed students during pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17(9), 1756-1757.External
Egger JR, Hoen AG, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL, Olson DR, Konty KJ. Usefulness of school absenteeism data for predicting influenza outbreaks, United States. Letter to Editor. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8)1375–7.External

Garza RC, Basurto-Dávila R, Ortega-Sanchez IR, et al. Effect of winter school breaks on influenza-like illness, Argentina, 2005–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:938–44.External

Langmuir AD, Pizzi M, Trotter WY, Dunn FL. Asian influenza surveillance. Public Health Rep. 1958;73:114–20.External

Loustalot F, Silk BJ, Gaither A, et al. Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and nonpharmaceutical interventions among households of high school students in San Antonio, Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 Suppl 1, S146-153.External

Marchbanks TL, Bhattarai A, Fagan RP, et al. An outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in an elementary school in Pennsylvania. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 Suppl 1, S154-160.External
Nasrullah M, Breiding MJ, Smith W, et al. Response to 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 among public schools of Georgia, United States–fall 2009. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16(5):e382–90. (i)External

Viboud C, Boëlle P-Y, Cauchemez S, et al. Risk factors of influenza transmission in households. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(506):684–9.External

Ali ST, Kadi AS, Ferguson NM. Transmission dynamics of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in India: the impact of holiday-related school closure. Epidemics. 2013;5:157–63.External

Araz OM, Damien P, Paltiel DA, et al. Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:449.External

Awofisayo A, Ibbotson S, Smith GE, Janmohamed K, Mohamed H, Olowokure B. Challenges and lessons learned from implementing a risk-based approach to school advice and closure during the containment phase of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the West Midlands, England. Public Health. 2013;127:637–43. (i)External

Basurto-Davila R, Garza R, Meltzer MI, et al. Household economic impact and attitudes toward school closures in two cities in Argentina during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013; 7(6), 1308-1315.External

Berkman BE. Mitigating pandemic influenza: the ethics of implementing a school closure policy. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2008;14:372–8. (i)External

Braunack-Mayer A, Tooher R, Collins JE, Street JM, Marshall H. Understanding the school community’s response to school closures during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:344. (i)External

Borse RH, Behravesh CB, Dumanovsky T, et al. Closing schools in response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus in New York City: economic impact on households. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:S168-S172. (i)External

Cauchemez S, Van Kerkhove MD, Archer BN, et al. School closures during the 2009 influenza pandemic: national and local experiences. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:207.External

Cauchemez S, Valleron AJ, Boëlle PY, Flahault A, Ferguson NM. Estimating the impact of school closure on influenza transmission from sentinel data. Nature. 2008;452:750-4.External

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parental attitudes and experiences during school dismissals related to 2009 influenza A (H1N1) –United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1131-4. (i)External

Chen WC, Huang AS, Chuang JH, Chiu CC, Kuo HS. Social and economic impact of school closure resulting from pandemic influenza A/H1N1. J Infect. 2011;62:200-3. (i)External

Community Preventive Services Task Force. Emergency Preparedness and Response: School Dismissals to Reduce Transmission of Pandemic Influenza. The Community Guide; 2012.External

Copeland DL, Basurto-Davila R, Chung W, et al. Effectiveness of a school district closure for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) on acute respiratory illnesses in the community: a natural experiment. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:509-16.External

Davis BM, Markel H, Navarro A, Wells E, Monto AS, Aiello AE. The effect of reactive school closure on community influenza-like illness counts in the state of Michigan during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(12):e90-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ182.External

Dooyema CA, Copeland D, Sinclair JR, et al. Factors influencing school closure and dismissal decisions: influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009. J Sch Health. 2014; 84(1), 56-62.External

Earn DJ, He D, Loeb M, Fonseca K, Lee BE, Dushoff J. Effects of school closure on incidence of pandemic influenza in Alberta, Canada. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:173-81.External

Effler PV, Carcione D, Giele C, Dowse GK, Goggin L, Mak DB. Household responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures, Perth, Western Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:205-11. (i)External

Epson E, Zheteyeva Y, Rainey J, et al. Evaluation of an unplanned school closure in a Colorado school district: implications for pandemic influenza preparedness. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2015;9(1):4-8. (i)External

Fung IC-H, Gambhir M, Glasser JW, et al. Modeling the effect of school closures in a pandemic scenario: exploring two different contact matrices. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60 Suppl 1:S58-S63. (i)External

Gift TL, Palekar RS, Sodha SV, et al. Household effects of school closure during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1315-7. (i)External

Halder N, Kelso JK, Milne GJ. Developing guidelines for school closure interventions to be used during a future influenza pandemic. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:221.External

Heymann A, Chodick G, Reichman B, Kokia E, Laufer J. Influence of school closure on the incidence of viral respiratory diseases among children and on health care utilization. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:675–7.External

Heymann AD, Hoch I, Valinsky L, Kokia E, Steinberg DM. School closure may be effective in reducing transmission of respiratory viruses in the community. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:1369-76.External

Jackson C, Vynnycky E, Hawker J, Olowokure B, Mangtani P. School closures and influenza: systematic review of epidemiological studies. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2). pii:e002149.External

Jarquin VG, Callahan DB, Cohen NJ, et al. Effect of school closure from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17(4), 751-753.External

Johnson AJ, Moore ZS, Edelson PJ, et al. Household responses to school closure resulting from outbreak of influenza B, North Carolina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1024–30. (i)External

Kann L, Kinchen S, Modzelski B, et al. ILI-related school dismissal monitoring system: an overview and assessment. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2012;6(2):104–12.External

Lee BY, Brown ST, Cooley P, et al. Simulating school closure strategies to mitigate an influenza epidemic. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2010;16:252–61.External

McVernon J, Mason K, Petrony S, et al. Recommendations for and compliance with social restrictions during implementation of school closures in the early phase of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in Melbourne, Australia. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:257. (i)External

Miller JC, Danon L, O’Hagan JJ, Goldstein E, Lajous M, Lipsitch M. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1. PLoS One. 2010;5(5):e10425. (i)External

Milne GJ, Kelso JK, Kelly HA, Huband ST, McVernon J. A small community model for the transmission of infectious diseases: comparison of school closure as an intervention in individual-based models of an influenza pandemic. PLoS One. 2008;3(12):e4005.External

Mizumoto K, Yamamoto T, Nishiura H. Contact behaviour of children and parental employment behaviour during school closures against the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Japan. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:716–24. (i)External

Morimoto T, Ishikawa H. Assessment of intervention strategies against a novel influenza epidemic using an individual-based model. Environ Health Prev Med. 2010;15:151–61.External

Potter MA, Brown ST, Cooley PC, et al. School closure as an influenza mitigation strategy: how variations in legal authority and plan criteria can alter the impact. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:977. (i)External

Rainey JJ, Kenney J, Wilburn B, Putman A, Zheteyeva Y, O’Sullivan M. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure – Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic. PLoS One. 2016, 11(9), e0163207.External

Russell ES, Zheteyeva Y, Gao H, et al. Reactive school closure during increased influenza-like illness (ILI) activity in western Kentucky, 2013: a field evaluation of effect on ILI incidence and economic and social consequences for families. Open Forum Infect Diseases. 2016;3(3). doi:10.1093/ofid/ofw113. (i)External

Sadique MZ, Adams EJ, Edmunds WJ. Estimating the costs of school closure for mitigating an influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:135. (i)External

Sasaki A, Hoen AG, Ozonoff A, et al. Evidence-based tool for triggering school closures during influenza outbreaks, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1841–3. (i)External

Shi J, Njai R, Wells E, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nonpharmaceutical interventions following school dismissals during the 2009 Influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Michigan, United States. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94290. (i)External

Stern AM, Cetron MS, Markel H. Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009;28:w1066–78. (i)External

Sypsa V, Hatzakis A. School closure is currently the main strategy to mitigate influenza A(H1N1)v: a modeling study. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(24). pii19240.External

Tsai V, Khan NM, Shi J, Rainey J, Gao H, Zheteyeva Y. Evaluation of Unintended Social and Economic Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure in Rural Illinois.J Sch Health. 2017; 87(7): 546-553.External

Uchida M, Kaneko M, Kawa S. Role of household factors in parental attitudes to pandemic influenza related school closure in Japan: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014 ;14:1089. (i)External

Uchida M, Tsukahara T, Kaneko M, Washizuka S, Kawa S. Effect of short-term school closures on the H1N1 pandemic in Japan: a comparative case study. Infection. 2012;40:549-56.External

Wheeler CC, Erhart LM, Jehn MI. Effect of school closure on the incidence of influenza among school age children in Arizona. Public Health Rep. 2010;125:851-9.External

Wong KK, Shi J, Gao H, et al. Why is school closed today? Unplanned K-12 school closures in the United States, 2011-2013. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e113755.External

Xue Y, Kristiansen IS, de Blasio BF. Dynamic modelling of costs and health consequences of school closure during an influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:962.External

Yasuda H, Yoshizawa N, Kimura M, et al. Preparedness for the spread of influenza: prohibition of traffic, school closure, and vaccination of children in the commuter towns of Tokyo. J Urban Health. 2008;85:619-35.External

Zhang T, Fu X, Kwoh CK, et al. Temporal factors in school closure policy for mitigating the spread of influenza. J Public Health Policy. 2011;32:180-97.External

Zhang T, Fu X, Ma S, et al. Evaluating temporal factors in combined interventions of workforce shift and school closure for mitigating the spread of influenza. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32203.External

Zheteyeva Y, Rainey, JJ, Gao H et al. Unintended costs and consequences of school closures implemented in preparation for Hurricane Isaac in Harrison County School District, Mississippi, August-September 2012. PLoS One. 2017; 12(11): e0184326.External

Aburto NJ, Pevzner E, Lopez-Ridaura R, et al. Knowledge and adoption of community mitigation efforts in Mexico during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39:395-402. (i)External

Agolory SG, Barbot O, Averhoff F, et al. Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions by New York City public schools to prevent 2009 influenza A. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1), e50916.External

NEW – Ahmed F, Zviedrite N, Uzicanin A. Effectiveness of workplace social distancing measures in reducing influenza transmission: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1):518.External

Bolton KJ, McCaw JM, Moss R, et al. Likely effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non- pharmaceutical interventions for mitigating influenza virus transmission in Mongolia. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:264-71.External

Halloran ME, Ferguson NM, Eubank S, et al. Modeling targeted layered containment of an influenza pandemic in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4639-44.External

Hatchett RJ, Mecher CE, Lipsitch M. Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7582-7.External

Herrera-Valdez M, Cruz-Aponte M, Castillo-Chavez C. Multiple outbreaks for the same pandemic: local transportation and social distancing explain the different “waves” of A H1N1 pandemic cases observed in México during 2009. Math Biosci Eng. 2011;8:21-48.External

Kelso JK, Milne GJ, Kelly HA. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:117.External

Markel H, Lipman HB, Navarro JA, et al. Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. JAMA. 2007;298:644-54.External

Miller JR, Short VL, Wu HM, et al. Use of nonpharmaceutical interventions to reduce transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in Pennsylvania public schools. J Sch Health. 2013; 83(4), 281-289.External

Mitchell T, Dee DL, Phares CR, et al. Non-pharmaceutical interventions during an outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection at a large public university, April-May 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 Suppl 1, S138-145.External

NEW – Pines LU, Schwartz H, Ahmed F, Zheteyeva Y, Meza E, Baker G, Uzicanin A. School practices to promote social distancing in K-12 schools: Review of influenza pandemic policies and practices. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1): 406.External

Rashid H, Ridda I, King C, et al. Evidence compendium and advice on social distancing and other related measures for response to an influenza pandemic [published online January 31, 2014]. Paediatr Respir Rev. pii:S1526-0542(14)00016-5. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2014.01.003.External

Yang Y, Atkinson PM, Ettema D. Analysis of CDC social control measures using an agent-based simulation of an influenza epidemic in a city. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:199.External

Albertí C, Orriols R, Manzanera R, Jardí J. Flu and other acute respiratory infections in the working population: the impact of influenza A (H1N1) epidemic. Arch Bronconeumol. 2010;46:634-9. (i)External

Blake KD, Blendon RJ, Viswanath K. Employment and compliance with pandemic influenza mitigation recommendations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(2):212-18.External

Edwards CH, Tomba GS, de Blasio BF. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations. Eur J Public Health. 2016;26:478-85. (i)External

Kumar S, Grefenstette JJ, Galloway D, Albert SM, Burke DS. Policies to reduce influenza in the workplace: impact assessments using an agent-based model. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:1406-11.External

Kumar S, Quinn SC, Kim KH, Daniel LH, Freimuth VS. The impact of workplace policies and other social factors on self-reported influenza-like illness incidence during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:134-40.External

Mao L. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior. PLoS One, 2011;6(10):e24706.External

Miyaki K, Sakurazawa H, Mikurube H, et al. An effective quarantine measure reduced the total incidence of influenza A H1N1 in the workplace: another way to control the H1N1 flu pandemic. J Occup Health. 2011;53:287-92.External

Rousculp MD, Johnston SS, Palmer LA, Chu BC, Mahadevia PJ, Nichol KL. Attending work while sick: implication of flexible sick leave policies. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:1009-13. (i)External

Alqahtani AS, Wiley KE, Tashani M, et al. Exploring barriers to and facilitators of preventive measures against infectious diseases among Australian Hajj pilgrims: cross-sectional studies before and after Hajj. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:53-9. (i)External

Figueroa A, Gulati RK, Rainey JJ. Estimating the frequency and characteristics of respiratory disease outbreaks at mass gatherings in the United States: Findings from a state and local health department assessment. PLoS One. 2017; 12(10): e0186730.External

Gutiérrez I, Litzroth A, Hammadi S, et al. Community transmission of influenza A (H1N1) virus at a rock festival in Belgium, 2-5 July 2009. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(31). pii:19294. (i)External

Hashim S, Ayub ZN, Mohamed Z, et al. The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 Hajj season. J Travel Med. 2016;23(2):tav019. (i)External

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