Research References

CDC uses findings from nonpharmaceutical intervention (NPI) research to ensure that our guidance and recommendations are based on scientific evidence. CDC conducts and supports research to understand the feasibility, effectiveness, and secondary effects of implementing NPIs during a flu pandemic.

The following references represent a select subset of scientific articles by CDC and other researchers that contribute to the NPI body of literature. These references describe the use of NPIs as a public health strategy during a flu pandemic, and provide evidence-based information about the effectiveness of NPIs in slowing the spread of seasonal or pandemic flu. The research also presents NPI implementation issues (i), including secondary effects, that may require advance planning and preparation.

The references are listed by topic area, in alphabetical order by first author’s last name.

Personal NPIs

Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:1372-81.external icon

Basurto-Davila R. Community mitigation strategies: a review of the evidence. Presented at: Decision Making for Using Community Mitigation Measures; 2011 January, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. (i) pdf icon[PDF – 32 pages]external icon

Bischoff WE, Swett K, Leng I, Peters TR. Exposure to influenza virus aerosols during routine patient care. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1037-46. (i)external icon

Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:257-65. (i)external icon

Chan EY, Cheng CK, Tam G, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Hong Kong population towards human A/H7N9 influenza pandemic preparedness, China, 2014. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:943. (i)external icon

Cowling BJ, Ip DK, Fang VJ, et al. Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108850. (i)external icon

Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Fraser C, Cajka JC, Cooley PC, Burke DS. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature. 2006;442:448-52.external icon

Godoy P, Castilla J, Delgado-Rodríguez M, et al. Effectiveness of hand hygiene and provision of information in preventing influenza cases requiring hospitalization. Prev Med. 2012;54:434-9.external icon

Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J, et al. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:285-91.external icon

Jefferson T, Del Mar C, Dooley L, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub3.external icon

Kaewchana S, Simmerman M, Somrongthong R, Suntarattiwong P, Lertmaharit S, Chotipitayasunondh T. Effect of intensive hand washing education on hand washing behaviors in Thai households with an influenza-positive child in urban Thailand. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012;24:577-85. (i)external icon

Lau CH, Springston EE, Sohn MW, et al. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:52.external icon

Liu M, Ou J, Zhang L, et al. Protective effect of hand-washing and good hygienic habits against seasonal influenza: a case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(11):e3046.external icon

Meilicke G, Riedmann K, Biederbick W, Müller U, Wierer T, Bartels C. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008-2009. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:959. (i)external icon

NEW – Michail, K. A., et al. (2017). “Promotion of Preventive Measures in Public Nursery Schools: Lessons From the H1N1 Pandemic.” Health Promotion Practice 18(5): 636-644external icon

Mitchell T, Massoudi M, Swerdlow DL, et al. Swine flu in college: early campus response to outbreak control measures. Am J Health Behav. 2014;38:448-64. (i)external icon

Park JH, Cheong HK, Son DY, Kim SU, Ha CM. Perceptions and behaviors related to hand hygiene for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission among Korean university students during the peak pandemic period. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:222. (i)external icon

Priest P, McKenzie JE, Audas R, Poore M, Brunton C, Reeves L. Hand sanitiser provision for reducing illness absences in primary school children: a cluster randomised trial. PLoS Med. 2014;11(8):e1001700.external icon

Savolainen-Kopra C, Haapakoski J, Peltola PA, et al. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial. Trials. 2012;13:10.external icon

Stebbins S, Stark JH, Vukotich CJ Jr. Compliance with a multilayered nonpharmaceutical intervention in an urban elementary school setting. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2010;16:316-24. (i)external icon

Stedman-Smith M, DuBois CL, Grey SF, et al. Outcomes of a pilot hand hygiene randomized cluster trial to reduce communicable infections among US office-based employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(4):374-80.external icon

SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Bekheit MM, Lubell K. The public’s response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:e65. (i)external icon

SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Ward JRM, Rapoport R, Kahn E, Kohl K. Public response to the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: a polling study in five countries. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:845-50. (i)external icon

Talaat M, Afifi S, Dueger E, et al. Effects of hand hygiene campaigns on incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza and absenteeism in schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:619-25.external icon

Timpka T, Spreco A, Gursky E, Eriksson O, Dahlström Ö, Strömgren M. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e91060. (i)external icon

Tuladhar E, Hazeleger WC, Koopmans M, et al. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants. J Hosp Infect. 2015;90:226-34. (i)external icon

Vukotich CJ Jr, Coulborn RM, Aragon TJ, et al. Findings, gaps, and future direction for research in nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:e2. (i)external icon

Warren-Gash C, Fragaszy E, Hayward AC. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2012;7:738-49.external icon

Willmott M, Nicholson A, Busse H, MacArthur GJ, Brookes S, Campbell R. Effectiveness of hand hygiene interventions in reducing illness absence among children in educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2016;101(1):42-50.external icon

Wong VW, Cowling BJ, Aiello AE. Hand hygiene and risk of influenza virus infections in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:922-32.external icon

Wu JT, Riley S, Fraser C, Leung GM. Reducing the impact of the next influenza pandemic using household-based public health interventions. PLoS Med. 2006;3(9):e261.external icon

Wu S, Ma C, Yang Z, et al. Hygiene behaviors associated with influenza-like illness among adults in Beijing, China: a large, population-based survey. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148448.external icon

Aburto NJ, Pevzner E, Lopez-Ridaura R, et al. Knowledge and adoption of community mitigation efforts in Mexico during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Am J Prev Med. 2010; 39(5), 395-402.external icon

Aiello AE, Murray GF, Perez V, et al. Mask use, hand hygiene, and seasonal influenza-like illness among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:491-8.external icon

Aiello AE, Perez V, Coulborn RM, Davis BM, Uddin M, Monto AS. Facemasks, hand hygiene, and influenza among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29744.external icon

Bin-Reza F, Lopez VC, Nicoll A, Chamberland ME. The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012;6:257-67.external icon

Canini L, Andreoletti L, Ferrari P, et al. Surgical mask to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e13998.external icon

CowlingBJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:437-46.external icon

Cowling BJ, Fung RO, Cheng CK, et al. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PLoS One. 2008;3(5):e2101.external icon

Cowling BJ, Zhou Y, Ip DKM, Leung GM, Aiello AE. Face masks to prevent influenza transmission: a systematic review. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:449-56.external icon

Davies A, Thompson KA, Giri K, Kafatos G, Walker J, Bennett A. Testing the efficacy of homemade masks: would they protect in an influenza pandemic? Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7:413-8.external icon

Johnson DF, Druce JD, Birch C, Grayson ML. A quantitative assessment of the efficacy of surgical and N95 masks to filter influenza virus in patients with acute influenza infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:275-7.external icon

Kavanagh AM, Bentley RJ, Mason KE, et al. Sources, perceived usefulness and understanding of information disseminated to families who entered home quarantine during the H1N1 pandemic in Victoria, Australia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:2. (i)external icon

Lai AC, Poon CK, Cheung AC. Effectiveness of facemasks to reduce exposure hazards for airborne infections among general populations. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:938-48.external icon

Li X, Geng W, Tian H, Lai D. Was mandatory quarantine necessary in China for controlling the 2009 H1N1 pandemic? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:4690-700.external icon

Li Y, Guo YP, Wong KC, Chung WY, Gohel MD, Leung HM. Transmission of communicable respiratory infections and facemasks. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2008;1:17-27.external icon

MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA. Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings. BMJ. 2015;350:h694.external icon

Milton DK, Fabian MP, Cowling BJ, Grantham ML, McDevitt JJ. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(3):e1003205.external icon

NEW – Peak, C. M., et al. (2017). “Comparing nonpharmaceutical interventions for containing emerging epidemics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114(15): 4023-4028.external icon

Rothstein MA, Talbott MK. Encouraging compliance with quarantine: a proposal to provide job security and income replacement. Am J Public Health. 2007;97 Suppl 1:S49-56. (i)external icon

Sim SW, Moey KS, Tan NC. The use of facemasks to prevent respiratory infection: a literature review in the context of the Health Belief Model. Singapore Med J. 2014;55:160-7. (i)external icon

Simmerman JM, Suntarattiwong P, Levy J, et al. Findings from a household randomized controlled trial of hand washing and face masks to reduce influenza transmission in Bangkok, Thailand. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011;5:256-67.external icon

Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink SB, et al. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomized trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:26.external icon

Tognotti E. Lessons from the history of quarantine, from plague to influenza A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:254-9.external icon

NEW – Tuohetamu, S., et al. (2017). “The knowledge, attitudes and practices on influenza among medical college students in Northwest China.” Human vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 13(7): 1688-1692.external icon

Wada K, Oka-Ezoe K, Smith DR. Wearing face masks in public during the influenza season may reflect other positive hygiene practices in Japan. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1065. (i)external icon

Community NPIs

Besculides M, Heffernan R, Mostashari F, et al. Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:105.external icon

Caley P, Philp DJ, McCracken K. Quantifying social distancing arising from pandemic influenza. J R Soc Interface. 2008;5:631-9.external icon

Chao DL, Halloran ME, Longini IM Jr. School opening dates predict pandemic influenza (A) H1N1 epidemics in the USA. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:877-80.external icon

Chowell G, Echevarría-Zuno S, Viboud C, et al. Characterizing the epidemiology of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. PLoS Med. 2011;8(5):e1000436.external icon

Cohen NJ, Callahan DB, Gonzalez V, et al. Respiratory illness in households of school-dismissed students during pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17(9), 1756-1757.external icon
Egger JR, Hoen AG, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL, Olson DR, Konty KJ. Usefulness of school absenteeism data for predicting influenza outbreaks, United States. Letter to Editor. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8)1375–7.external icon

Garza RC, Basurto-Dávila R, Ortega-Sanchez IR, et al. Effect of winter school breaks on influenza-like illness, Argentina, 2005–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:938–44.external icon

Langmuir AD, Pizzi M, Trotter WY, Dunn FL. Asian influenza surveillance. Public Health Rep. 1958;73:114–20.external icon

Loustalot F, Silk BJ, Gaither A, et al. Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and nonpharmaceutical interventions among households of high school students in San Antonio, Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 Suppl 1, S146-153.external icon

Marchbanks TL, Bhattarai A, Fagan RP, et al. An outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in an elementary school in Pennsylvania. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 Suppl 1, S154-160.external icon

NEW – McLean, H. Q., et al. (2017). “School absenteeism among school-aged children with medically attended acute viral respiratory illness during three influenza seasons, 2012-2013 through 2014-2015.” Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses 11(3): 220-229.external icon

Nasrullah M, Breiding MJ, Smith W, et al. Response to 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 among public schools of Georgia, United States–fall 2009. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16(5):e382–90. (i)external icon

NEW – Temte JL, Uzicanin A, Goss M, Comp L, Temte E, Barlow S, Reisdorf E, Shult P, Wedig M, Florek K. Sequential, within-season infection with influenza A (H3N2) in a usually healthy vaccinated child. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019; 00:1-4.external icon

Viboud C, Boëlle P-Y, Cauchemez S, et al. Risk factors of influenza transmission in households. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(506):684–9.external icon

Ali ST, Kadi AS, Ferguson NM. Transmission dynamics of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in India: the impact of holiday-related school closure. Epidemics. 2013;5:157–63.external icon

Araz OM, Damien P, Paltiel DA, et al. Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:449.external icon

Awofisayo A, Ibbotson S, Smith GE, Janmohamed K, Mohamed H, Olowokure B. Challenges and lessons learned from implementing a risk-based approach to school advice and closure during the containment phase of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the West Midlands, England. Public Health. 2013;127:637–43. (i)external icon

Basurto-Davila R, Garza R, Meltzer MI, et al. Household economic impact and attitudes toward school closures in two cities in Argentina during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013; 7(6), 1308-1315.external icon

Berkman BE. Mitigating pandemic influenza: the ethics of implementing a school closure policy. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2008;14:372–8. (i)external icon

Braunack-Mayer A, Tooher R, Collins JE, Street JM, Marshall H. Understanding the school community’s response to school closures during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:344. (i)external icon

Borse RH, Behravesh CB, Dumanovsky T, et al. Closing schools in response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus in New York City: economic impact on households. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:S168-S172. (i)external icon

Cauchemez S, Van Kerkhove MD, Archer BN, et al. School closures during the 2009 influenza pandemic: national and local experiences. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:207.external icon

Cauchemez S, Valleron AJ, Boëlle PY, Flahault A, Ferguson NM. Estimating the impact of school closure on influenza transmission from sentinel data. Nature. 2008;452:750-4.external icon

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parental attitudes and experiences during school dismissals related to 2009 influenza A (H1N1) –United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1131-4. (i)external icon

Chen WC, Huang AS, Chuang JH, Chiu CC, Kuo HS. Social and economic impact of school closure resulting from pandemic influenza A/H1N1. J Infect. 2011;62:200-3. (i)external icon

NEW – Chu, Y., et al. (2017). “Effects of school breaks on influenza-like illness incidence in a temperate Chinese region: an ecological study from 2008 to 2015.” BMJ Open 7(3): e013159.external icon

Community Preventive Services Task Force. Emergency Preparedness and Response: School Dismissals to Reduce Transmission of Pandemic Influenza. The Community Guide; 2012.external icon

Copeland DL, Basurto-Davila R, Chung W, et al. Effectiveness of a school district closure for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) on acute respiratory illnesses in the community: a natural experiment. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:509-16.external icon

Davis BM, Markel H, Navarro A, Wells E, Monto AS, Aiello AE. The effect of reactive school closure on community influenza-like illness counts in the state of Michigan during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(12):e90-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ182.external icon

Dooyema CA, Copeland D, Sinclair JR, et al. Factors influencing school closure and dismissal decisions: influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009. J Sch Health. 2014; 84(1), 56-62.external icon

Earn DJ, He D, Loeb M, Fonseca K, Lee BE, Dushoff J. Effects of school closure on incidence of pandemic influenza in Alberta, Canada. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:173-81.external icon

Effler PV, Carcione D, Giele C, Dowse GK, Goggin L, Mak DB. Household responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures, Perth, Western Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:205-11. (i)external icon

Epson E, Zheteyeva Y, Rainey J, et al. Evaluation of an unplanned school closure in a Colorado school district: implications for pandemic influenza preparedness. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2015;9(1):4-8. (i)external icon

NEW – Ewing, A., et al. (2017). “Contact, Travel, and Transmission: The Impact of Winter Holidays on Influenza Dynamics in the United States.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 215(5): 732-739.external icon

Fung IC-H, Gambhir M, Glasser JW, et al. Modeling the effect of school closures in a pandemic scenario: exploring two different contact matrices. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60 Suppl 1:S58-S63. (i)external icon

Gift TL, Palekar RS, Sodha SV, et al. Household effects of school closure during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1315-7. (i)external icon

NEW – Germann TC, Gao H, Gambhir M, Plummer A, Biggerstaff M, Reed C, Uzicanin A. School dismissal as a pandemic influenza response: When, where and for how long? Epidemics. 2019; 100348.external icon

Halder N, Kelso JK, Milne GJ. Developing guidelines for school closure interventions to be used during a future influenza pandemic. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:221.external icon

Heymann A, Chodick G, Reichman B, Kokia E, Laufer J. Influence of school closure on the incidence of viral respiratory diseases among children and on health care utilization. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:675–7.external icon

Heymann AD, Hoch I, Valinsky L, Kokia E, Steinberg DM. School closure may be effective in reducing transmission of respiratory viruses in the community. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:1369-76.external icon

Jackson C, Vynnycky E, Hawker J, Olowokure B, Mangtani P. School closures and influenza: systematic review of epidemiological studies. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2). pii:e002149.external icon

Jarquin VG, Callahan DB, Cohen NJ, et al. Effect of school closure from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17(4), 751-753.external icon

Johnson AJ, Moore ZS, Edelson PJ, et al. Household responses to school closure resulting from outbreak of influenza B, North Carolina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1024–30. (i)external icon

Kann L, Kinchen S, Modzelski B, et al. ILI-related school dismissal monitoring system: an overview and assessment. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2012;6(2):104–12.external icon

Lee BY, Brown ST, Cooley P, et al. Simulating school closure strategies to mitigate an influenza epidemic. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2010;16:252–61.external icon

NEW – Luca, G., et al. (2018). “The impact of regular school closure on seasonal influenza epidemics: a data-driven spatial transmission model for Belgium.” BMC Infectious Diseases 18(1): 29.external icon

McVernon J, Mason K, Petrony S, et al. Recommendations for and compliance with social restrictions during implementation of school closures in the early phase of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in Melbourne, Australia. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:257. (i)external icon

Miller JC, Danon L, O’Hagan JJ, Goldstein E, Lajous M, Lipsitch M. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1. PLoS One. 2010;5(5):e10425. (i)external icon

Milne GJ, Kelso JK, Kelly HA, Huband ST, McVernon J. A small community model for the transmission of infectious diseases: comparison of school closure as an intervention in individual-based models of an influenza pandemic. PLoS One. 2008;3(12):e4005.external icon

Mizumoto K, Yamamoto T, Nishiura H. Contact behaviour of children and parental employment behaviour during school closures against the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Japan. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:716–24. (i)external icon

Morimoto T, Ishikawa H. Assessment of intervention strategies against a novel influenza epidemic using an individual-based model. Environ Health Prev Med. 2010;15:151–61.external icon

Potter MA, Brown ST, Cooley PC, et al. School closure as an influenza mitigation strategy: how variations in legal authority and plan criteria can alter the impact. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:977. (i)external icon

Rainey JJ, Kenney J, Wilburn B, Putman A, Zheteyeva Y, O’Sullivan M. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure – Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic. PLoS One. 2016, 11(9), e0163207.external icon

Russell ES, Zheteyeva Y, Gao H, et al. Reactive school closure during increased influenza-like illness (ILI) activity in western Kentucky, 2013: a field evaluation of effect on ILI incidence and economic and social consequences for families. Open Forum Infect Diseases. 2016;3(3). doi:10.1093/ofid/ofw113. (i)external icon

Sadique MZ, Adams EJ, Edmunds WJ. Estimating the costs of school closure for mitigating an influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:135. (i)external icon

Sasaki A, Hoen AG, Ozonoff A, et al. Evidence-based tool for triggering school closures during influenza outbreaks, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1841–3. (i)external icon

Shi J, Njai R, Wells E, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nonpharmaceutical interventions following school dismissals during the 2009 Influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Michigan, United States. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94290. (i)external icon

Stern AM, Cetron MS, Markel H. Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009;28:w1066–78. (i)external icon

Sypsa V, Hatzakis A. School closure is currently the main strategy to mitigate influenza A(H1N1)v: a modeling study. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(24). pii19240.external icon

Tsai V, Khan NM, Shi J, Rainey J, Gao H, Zheteyeva Y. Evaluation of Unintended Social and Economic Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure in Rural Illinois.J Sch Health. 2017; 87(7): 546-553.external icon

Uchida M, Kaneko M, Kawa S. Role of household factors in parental attitudes to pandemic influenza related school closure in Japan: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014 ;14:1089. (i)external icon

Uchida M, Tsukahara T, Kaneko M, Washizuka S, Kawa S. Effect of short-term school closures on the H1N1 pandemic in Japan: a comparative case study. Infection. 2012;40:549-56.external icon

Wheeler CC, Erhart LM, Jehn MI. Effect of school closure on the incidence of influenza among school age children in Arizona. Public Health Rep. 2010;125:851-9.external icon

Wong KK, Shi J, Gao H, et al. Why is school closed today? Unplanned K-12 school closures in the United States, 2011-2013. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e113755.external icon

Xue Y, Kristiansen IS, de Blasio BF. Dynamic modelling of costs and health consequences of school closure during an influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:962.external icon

Yasuda H, Yoshizawa N, Kimura M, et al. Preparedness for the spread of influenza: prohibition of traffic, school closure, and vaccination of children in the commuter towns of Tokyo. J Urban Health. 2008;85:619-35.external icon

Zhang T, Fu X, Kwoh CK, et al. Temporal factors in school closure policy for mitigating the spread of influenza. J Public Health Policy. 2011;32:180-97.external icon

Zhang T, Fu X, Ma S, et al. Evaluating temporal factors in combined interventions of workforce shift and school closure for mitigating the spread of influenza. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32203.external icon

Zheteyeva Y, Rainey, JJ, Gao H et al. Unintended costs and consequences of school closures implemented in preparation for Hurricane Isaac in Harrison County School District, Mississippi, August-September 2012. PLoS One. 2017; 12(11): e0184326.external icon

Aburto NJ, Pevzner E, Lopez-Ridaura R, et al. Knowledge and adoption of community mitigation efforts in Mexico during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39:395-402. (i)external icon

Agolory SG, Barbot O, Averhoff F, et al. Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions by New York City public schools to prevent 2009 influenza A. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1), e50916.external icon

Ahmed F, Zviedrite N, Uzicanin A. Effectiveness of workplace social distancing measures in reducing influenza transmission: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1):518.external icon

Bolton KJ, McCaw JM, Moss R, et al. Likely effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non- pharmaceutical interventions for mitigating influenza virus transmission in Mongolia. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:264-71.external icon

NEW – Faherty LJ, Schwartz HL, Ahmed F, Zheteyeva Y, Uzicanin A, Pines LU. School and preparedness officials’ perspectives on social distancing practices to reduce influenza transmission during a pandemic: Considerations to guide future work. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2019; 14:100871.external icon

Halloran ME, Ferguson NM, Eubank S, et al. Modeling targeted layered containment of an influenza pandemic in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4639-44.external icon

Hatchett RJ, Mecher CE, Lipsitch M. Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7582-7.external icon

Herrera-Valdez M, Cruz-Aponte M, Castillo-Chavez C. Multiple outbreaks for the same pandemic: local transportation and social distancing explain the different “waves” of A H1N1 pandemic cases observed in México during 2009. Math Biosci Eng. 2011;8:21-48.external icon

Kelso JK, Milne GJ, Kelly HA. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:117.external icon

Markel H, Lipman HB, Navarro JA, et al. Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. JAMA. 2007;298:644-54.external icon

Miller JR, Short VL, Wu HM, et al. Use of nonpharmaceutical interventions to reduce transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in Pennsylvania public schools. J Sch Health. 2013; 83(4), 281-289.external icon

Mitchell T, Dee DL, Phares CR, et al. Non-pharmaceutical interventions during an outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection at a large public university, April-May 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 Suppl 1, S138-145.external icon

Pines LU, Schwartz H, Ahmed F, Zheteyeva Y, Meza E, Baker G, Uzicanin A. School practices to promote social distancing in K-12 schools: Review of influenza pandemic policies and practices. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1): 406.external icon

Rashid H, Ridda I, King C, et al. Evidence compendium and advice on social distancing and other related measures for response to an influenza pandemic [published online January 31, 2014]. Paediatr Respir Rev. pii:S1526-0542(14)00016-5. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2014.01.003.external icon

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