1. Caruso CC, Bushnell T, Eggerth D, Heitmann A, Kojola B, Newman K, Rosa RR, Sauter SL, Vila B [2006]. Long work hours health and safety: toward a national research agenda. Am J Ind Med 49(11):930-942.

  2. Pilcher JJ, Lambert BJ, Moore LT, Huffcutt AI [1997]. Effects of shiftwork on sleep: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Res 26:233.

  3. Pilcher JJ, Lambert BJ, Huffcutt AI [2000]. Differential effects of permanent and rotating shifts on self- report sleep length: a meta-analytic review. Sleep 23:155-163.

  4. Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, Walsh JK, Roth T [2004]. Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 27:1453-1462.

  5. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) [2012]. Short Sleep Duration among Workers - United States, 2010. MMWR 61 (16): 281-285.

  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [2010]. Healthy People 2020 Sleep Health. []

  7. Luckhaupt SE, Tak SW, Calvert GM [2010]. The prevalence of short sleep duration by industry and occupation in the National Health Interview Survey. Sleep 33: 149-159.

  8. Goel N, Rao H, Durmer JS, Dinges DF [2009]. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 29:320-339.

  9. Moller HJ, Kayumov L, Bulmash EL, Nhan J, Shapiro CM [2006]. Simulator performance, microsleep episodes, and subjective sleepiness: normative data using convergent methodologies to assess driver drowsiness. J Psychosom Res 61(3):335-342.

  10. Venkatraman V, Chuah YML, Huettel SA, Chee MWL [2007]. Sleep deprivation elevates expectation of gains and attenuates response to losses following risky decisions. Sleep 30(5):603-609.

  11. Durmer JS, Dinges DF [2005]. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 25:117-129.

  12. Pilcher JJ, McClelland LE, Moore DD, Haarmann H, Baron J, Wallsten TS, McCubbin JA [2007]. Language performance under sustained work and sleep deprivation conditions. Aviation Space Environ Med 78(5 Suppl):B25-B38.

  13. Van Dongen HPA, Maislin G, Mullington JM, Dinges DF [2003]. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep 26:117-126.

  14. Arnedt JT, Owens J, Crouch M, Stahl J, Carskadon MA [2005]. Neurobehavioral performance of residents after heavy night call vs after alcohol ingestion. JAMA 294:1025-1033.

  15. Van Dongen HPA, Belenky G [2009]. Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss in the work environment. Ind Health 47.

  16. Czeisler CA [2009]. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 120:249-85.

  17. Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack A [2014].A Novel BHLHE41 Variant is Associated with Short Sleep and Resistance to Sleep Deprivation in Humans. Sleep 37(8):1327-1336.

  18. Dawson D, Reid K [1997]. Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature 388:235.

  19. Williamson AM, Feyer AM [2000]. Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occup Environ Med 57:649-655.

  20. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [2000]. On DWl laws in other countries. []

  21. Howard ME, Jackson ML, Kennedy GA, Swann P, Barnes M, Pierce RJ [2007]. The interactive effects of extended wakefulness and low-dose alcohol on simulated driving and vigilance. Sleep 30:1334-1340.

  22. Rogers Commission [1986]. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Volume II. Appendix G. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  23. National Transportation Safety Board [2004]. Grounding of U.S. Tank ship Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound Near Valdez, Alaska, March 04 1989. NTSB/ MAR-90/04, Washington D.C.: NTSB.

  24. Baker Panel [2007]. The report of the BP U.S. refineries independent safety review panel. [].

  25. National Transportation Safety Board [2009]. Aircraft Accident Report: loss of control on approach, Colgan Air, Inc., operating as Continental connection flight 3407, Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ, Clarence Center, New York, February 12, 2009. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board [].

  26. National Transportation Safety Board [2012]. Motorcoach Run-Off-the-Road and Collision with Vertical Highway Signpost Interstate 95 Southbound New York City, New York March 12, 2011 Accident Report. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board [].

  27. Bae SH, Fabry D [2014]. Assessing the relationships between nurse work hours/overtime and nurse and patient outcomes: systematic literature review. Nurs Outlook 62(2):138-156.

  28. Stimpfel AW, Sloane DM, Aiken LH [2012]. The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Aff (Millwood) 31:2501-2509.

  29. Rogers AE, Hwang W, Scott LD, Aiken LH, Dinges DF [2004]. The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety. Health Aff 23:202-212.

  30. Scott LD, Rogers AE, Hwang WT, Zhang Y [2006]. Effects of critical care nurses' work hours on vigilance and patients' safety. Am J Crit Care 15:30-37.

  31. Trinkoff AM, Johantgen M, Storr CL, Gurses AP, Liang Y, Han K [2011]. Nurses' work schedule characteristics, nurse staffing, and patient mortality. Nursing Res 60:1-8.

  32. Olds DM, Clarke SP [2010]. The effect of work hours on adverse events and errors in health care. J Safety Res 41(2):153-162.

  33. Institute of Medicine [2004]. Keeping patients safe: transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

  34. Wisconsin Department of Regulation and Licensing [2006]. State of Wisconsin before the Board of Nursing: Final decision and order LS0612145NUR. Division of Enforcement case no. 06NUR247 [].

  35. Michial Jacobs v. Pacific Transportation Services, Ernie Newland and Thomas Lloyd. No. PM06-1710, 2010 WL 2894512 (California 2010).

  36. Marthe vs. Trotter. No. MC006412, 1999 WL 318940 (California 1999).

  37. Colten HR, Altevogt BM [2006]. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation an unmet public health problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

  38. Barger LK, Cade BE, Ayas NT, Cronin JW, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Czeisler CA [2005]. Extended work shifts and the risk of motor vehicle crashes among interns. N Engl J Med 352:125-97.

  39. Kirkcaldy BD, Trimpop R, Cooper CL [1997]. Working hours, job stress, work satisfaction, and accident rates among medical practitioners and allied personnel. Int J Stress Mgmt 4:79-87.

  40. Novak RD, Auvil-Novak SE [1996]. Focus group evaluation of night nurse shiftwork difficulties and coping strategies. Chronobiol Int 13:457-463.

  41. Scott LD, Hwang W, Rogers AE, Nysse T, Dean GE, Dinges DF [2007]. The relationship between nurse work schedules, sleep duration, and drowsy driving. Sleep 30:1801-1807.

  42. National Sleep Foundation. [].

  43. National Transportation Safety Board [2012]. Motorcoach roadway departure and overturn on Interstate 95 near Doswell, Virginia May 31, 2011. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board [].

  44. Senate, Bill No. 1644, State of New Jersey, 210th Legislature, introduced June 13, 2002. [].

  45. Folkard S, Lombardi DA [2006]. Modeling the impact of the components of long work hours on injuries and ‘accidents.’ Am J Ind Med 49:953-963.

  46. Dembe AE, Erickson JB, Delbos RG, Banks SM [2005]. The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States. Occup Environ Med 62:588-597.

  47. Trinkoff AM, Le R, Geiger-Brown J, Lipscomb J [2007]. Work schedule, needle use, and needlestick injuries among registered nurses. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:156-164.

  48. Fisman DN, Harris AD, Rubin M, Sorock GS, Mittleman MA [2007]. Fatigue increases the risk of injury from sharp devices in medical trainees: results from a case-crossover study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:10-17.

  49. Ayas NT, Barger LK, Cade BE, Hashimoto DM, Rosner B, Cronin JW, Speizer FE, Czeisler CA [2006]. Extended work duration and the risk of self-reported percutaneous injuries in interns. JAMA 296(9):1055-1062.

  50. de Castro AB, Fujishiro K, Rue T, Tagalog EA, Samaco-Paquiz LP, Gee GC [2010]. Associations between work schedule characteristics and occupational injury and illness. Int Nurs Rev 57(2):188-194.

  51. Antunes LC, Levandovski R, Dantas G, Caumo W, Hidalgo MP [2010]. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects. Nutr Res Rev 23:155-168.

  52. Nakamura K, Shimai S, Kikuchi S, Takahashi H, Tanaka M, Nakano S, Motohashi Y, Nakadaira H, Yamamoto M [1998]. Increases in body mass index and waist circumference as outcomes of working overtime. Occup Med (Lond) 48:169-173.

  53. Shields M [1999]. Long working hours and health. Health Rep 11:33-48.

  54. Spiegel K, Tasali E, Leproult R, Van Cauter E [2009]. Effects of poor and short sleep on glucose metabolism and obesity risk. Nature Rev Endocrinol 5:253-261.

  55. Bushnell PT, Colombi A, Caruso CC, Tak SW [2010]. Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer. Ind Health 48(4):395-405.

  56. Frost P, Kolstad HA, Bonde JP [2009]. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scand J Work Environ Health 35:163-179.

  57. Puttonen S, Harma M, Hublin C [2010]. Shift work and cardiovascular disease - pathways from circadian stress to morbidity. Scand J Work Environ Health 36(2):96-108.

  58. Van Cauter E, Spiegel K [1999]. Sleep as a mediator of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health: a hypothesis. Ann NY Acad Sci 896:254-261.

  59. Caruso CC, Lusk SL, Gillespie BW [2004]. Relationship of work schedules to gastrointestinal diagnoses, symptoms, and medication use in auto factory workers. Am J Ind Med 46:586-598.

  60. Knutson A, Bøggild H [2010]. Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 36(2):85-95.

  61. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Kawachi I, Fuchs CS, Colditz GA [2003]. Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the nurses' health study. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:825-828.

  62. Rohr SM, Von Essen SG, Farr LA [2003]. Overview of the medical consequences of shift work. Clin Occup Environ Med 3:351-361.

  63. Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, Ghissassi FR, Bouvard V, Altieri A, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Cogliano V, WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group [2007]. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Lancet Oncol 8:1065-1066.

  64. Bonde JP, Hansen J, Kolstad HA, Mikkelsen S, Olsen JH, Blask DE, Härmä M, Kjuus H, de Koning HJ, Olsen J, Møller M, Schernhammer ES, Stevens RG, Åkerstedt T [2012]. Work at night and breast cancer: report on evidence-based options for preventive actions. Scand J Work Environ Health 38:380-390.

  65. Conlon M, Lightfoot N, Kreiger N [2007]. Rotating shift work and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiology 18:182-183.

  66. Kubo T, Ozasa K, Mikami K, Wakai K, Fujino Y, Watanabe Y, Miki T, Nakao M, Hayashi K, Suzuki K, Mori M, Washio M, Sakauchi F, Ito Y, Yoshimura T, Tamakoshi A [2006]. Prospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 164:549-555.

  67. Kubo T, Oyama I, Nakamura T, Kunimoto M, Kadowaki K, Otomo H, Fujino Y, Fujimoto N, Matsumoto T, Matsuda S [2011]. Industry-based retrospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers. Int J Urol 18(3):206-211.

  68. Parent ME, El-Zein M, Rousseau MC, Pintos J, Siemiatycki J [2012]. Night work and the risk of cancer among men. Am J Epidemiol 176 (9): 751-759.

  69. Schwartzbaum J, Ahlbom A, Feychting M [2007]. Cohort study of cancer risk among male and female shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 33:336-343.

  70. Costa G, Haus E, Stevens R [2010]. Shift work and cancer: considerations on rationale, mechanisms, and epidemiology. Scand J Work Environ Health 36:163-179.

  71. Pan A, Schernhammer ES, Sun Q, Hu FB [2011]. Rotating night shift work and risk of type 2 diabetes: two prospective cohort studies in women. PLoS Med 8(12):e1001141.

  72. Gan Y, Yang C, Tong X, Sun H, Cong Y, Yin X, Li L, Cao S, Dong X, Gong Y, Shi O, Deng J, Bi H, Lu Z [2014 July 16]. Shift work and diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Occup Environ Med, doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102150. Advance online publication.

  73. Monk TH, Buysse DJ [2013]. Exposure to shift work as a risk factor for diabetes. J Biol Rhythms 28 (5):356-359.

  74. Rakshit K, Thomas AP, Matveyenko AV [2014]. Does disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes? Curr Diab Rep 14 (4):474, 1-8.

  75. Buxton OM, Cain SW, O'Connor SP, Porter JH, Duffy JF, Wang W, Czeisler CA, Shea SA [2012]. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption. Science Translational Medicine 4 (129):129ra43 1-19.

  76. Leproult R, Holmback U, Van Cauter E [2014]. Circadian misalignment augments markers of insulin resistance and inflammation, independently of sleep loss. Diabetes 63 (6):1860-1869.

  77. Smith MR, Eastman CI [2012]. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nature Sci Sleep 4: 111-132

  78. Frazier LM, Grainger DA [2003]. Shift work and adverse reproductive outcomes among men and women. Clin Occup Environ Med 3:279-292.

  79. Shechter A, James FO, Boivin DB [2008]. Circadian rhythms and shift working women. Sleep Med Clin 13-24.

  80. NIOSH [2004]. Overtime and extended work shifts: recent findings on illnesses, injuries, and health behaviors. By Caruso CC, Hitchcock EM, Dick RB, Russo JM, Schmit JM. Cincinnati, OH: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.2004-143.

  81. Virtanen M, Heikkilä K, Jokela M, Ferrie JE, Batty FG, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M [2012]. Long working hours and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 176(7):586-596.

  82. Tuntiseranee P, Olsen J, Geater A, Kor-anantakul O [1998]. Are long working hours and shiftwork risk factors for subfecundity? A study among couples from southern Thailand. Occup Environ Med 55:99-105.

  83. Mozurkewich EL, Luke B, Avni M, Wolf FM [2000]. Working conditions and adverse pregnancy outcome: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 95:623-635.

  84. Caruso CC, Waters TR [2008]. A review of work schedule issues and musculoskeletal disorders with an emphasis on the healthcare sector. Ind Health 46:523-534.

  85. Trinkoff AM, Le R, Geiger-Brown J, Lipscomb JA, Lang G [2006]. Longitudinal relationship of work hours, mandatory overtime, and on-call to musculoskeletal problems in nurses. Am J Ind Med 49:964-971.

  86. Albertsen K, Rafnsdóttir L, Grimsmo A, Tómasson K, Kauppinen K [2008]. Workhours and worklife balance. Scand J Work Environ Health Suppl 5:14-21.

  87. Carlson DS, Perrewe PL [1999]. The role of social support in the stressor-strain relationship: an examination of work-family conflict. J Mgmt 25:513-540.

  88. Greenhaus JH, Bedeian AG, Mossholder KW [1987]. Work experiences, job performance, and feelings of personal and family well-being. J Vocational Behavior 31:200-215.

  89. Jacobs JA, Gerson K [2004]. The time divide: work, family, and gender inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  90. Kalil A, Ziol-Guest KM, Epstein JL [2010]. Nonstandard work and marital instability: evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth. J Marriage Family 72(5):1289-1300.

  91. Presser HB [2000]. Nonstandard work schedules and marital instability. J Marriage Family 62(1):93-110.

  92. Presser HB [2003]. Working in a 24/7 economy challenges for American families. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

  93. Liu H, Wang Q, Keesler V, Schneider B [2011]. Non-standard work schedules, work-family conflict and parental well-being: a comparison of married and cohabiting unions. Soc Sci Res 40:473-484.

  94. Han W [2008]. Shift work and child behavioral outcomes. Work Employ Soc 22:67-87.

  95. Han WJ, Waldfogel J [2007]. Parental work schedules, family process, and early adolescents' risky behavior. Children Youth Serv Rev 29:1249-1266.

  96. Phipps SA, Lethbridge L, Burton P [2006]. Long-run consequences of parental paid work hours for child overweight status in Canada. Soc Sci Med 62:977-986.

  97. Barnett RC, Hall DT [2007]. The silver lining in shift work: can your organization take advantage of it? Organiz Dynam 36:404-417.

  98. Duchon JC, Smith TJ, Keran CM, Koehler EJ [1997]. Psychophysiological manifestations of performance during work on extended workshifts. Int J Indust Ergon 20:39-49.

  99. Hanna AS, Taylor CS, Sullivan KT [2005]. Impact of extended overtime on construction labor productivity. J Constr Eng Mgmt 131:734-739.

  100. Thomas HR, Raynar KA [1997]. Scheduled overtime and labor productivity: quantitative analysis. J Constr Eng Mgmt 123:181-88.

  101. Peter D, Hart Research Associates [2001]. The nurse shortage: perspectives from current direct care nurses and former direct care nurses. [].

  102. Moore-Ede MC [2011]. A Safer, More Productive Night Shift. Webinar presented September 28 by

  103. Rosekind MR, Gregory KB, Mallis MM, Brandt SL, Seal B, Lerner D [2010]. The cost of poor sleep: workplace productivity loss and associated costs. J Occup Environ Med 521: 91-98.