Organization of Work: Effort-Reward Imbalance

Workers putting puzzle pieces together

Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI)

NOTE: This page is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or updated

Effort Reward Imbalance

ID = 091

Content Area(s)

  • Benefits and compensation systems
  • Career trajectory / ladder
  • Job demands (or expectations)
  • Job (in)security

Instrument Type


Occupation and Sector Specificity

Occupation(s): Generic

Sector(s): Generic

Name and Size of Work Organization and/or Workplace Psychosocial Measures

Effort (6 items)

Esteem (reward sub-scale) (5 items)

Job promotion / salary (reward sub-scale) (4 items)

Job security (reward sub-scale) (2 items)

Other Content Areas Included in the Instrument

Over commitment (6 items)

Developmental Status of the Instrument

Instrument used widely; well-defined properties.


Original: German

Other: Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finish, French, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish.

Reliability and Validity Information (or Relevant Citation)

Siegrist J, Starke D, Chandola T, Godin I, Marmot M, Neidhammer, Peter R (2004) The measurement of effort-reward imbalance at work: European comparisons. Social Science & Medicine, 58:1483-1499.

Selected Reference

Tsutsumi A and Kawakami N (2004) A review of empirical studies on the model of effort-reward imbalance at work: reducing occupational stress by implementing a new theory. Social Science & Medicine, 59:2335-2359.

Accessibility of the Instrument

Registration Required

User Fees


Where to Obtain a Copy of the Instrument

Send an e-mail to Johannes Siegrist at