Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009

Glossary

Aerosol

Tiny particles or droplets suspended in air. These range in diameter from about 0.001 to 100 μm.1

Aerosolized transmission

Person-to-person transmission of an infectious agent through the air by an aerosol. See “aerosolized airborne transmission” and “aerosolized droplet transmission.”

Aerosolized airborne transmission

Person-to-person transmission of an infectious agent by an aerosol of small particles able to remain airborne for long periods of time. These can transmit diseases on air currents over long distances, cause prolonged airspace contamination, and can be inhaled into the trachea and lung.2

Aerosolized droplet transmission

Person-to-person transmission of an infectious agent by large particles only able to remain airborne for short periods of time. These generally transmit diseases through the air over short distances (approximately 6 feet), do not cause prolonged airspace contamination, and are too large to be inhaled into the trachea and lung.3

Contact or body fluid transmission

Person-to-person transmission of an infectious agent through direct or indirect contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids.4

Emergency Response Employee (ERE)

Firefighters, law enforcement officers, paramedics, emergency medical technicians, funeral service practitioners, and other individuals (including employees of legally organized and recognized volunteer organizations, without regard to whether such employees receive nominal compensation) who, in the course of professional duties, respond to emergencies in the geographic area involved.

Exposed

To be in circumstances in which there is recognized risk for transmission of an infectious agent from a human source to an ERE5 or, in the case of a Select Agent, from a surface or environment contaminated by the agent to an ERE.

Potentially life-threatening infectious disease

An infectious disease to which EREs may be exposed and that has reasonable potential to cause death or fetal mortality in either healthy EREs or in EREs who are able to work but take medications or are living with conditions that might impair host defense mechanisms.


[1] Baron P. Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols). PowerPoint Presentation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Applied Technology. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/aerosols/pdfs/Aerosol_101.pdfpdf iconpdf icon. Accessed January 15, 2019.

[2] Baron P. Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols). PowerPoint Presentation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Applied Technology. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/aerosols/pdfs/Aerosol_101.pdfpdf iconpdf icon. Accessed January 15, 2019.

[3] Baron P. Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols). PowerPoint Presentation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Applied Technology. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/aerosols/pdfs/Aerosol_101.pdfpdf iconpdf icon. Accessed January 15, 2019.

 [4] Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/isolation/Isolation2007.pdfpdf iconpdf icon. Accessed January 15, 2019.

[5] Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/isolation/Isolation2007.pdfpdf icon. Accessed January 15, 2019.

Page last reviewed: March 26, 2020