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Workplace Solutions: Using Lockout and Tagout Procedures to Prevent Injury and Death during Machine Maintenance
NIOSH Publication No. 2011-156 (April 2011)
Workers are at risk of severe injury and death during machine maintenance and servicing if proper lockout and tagout procedures are not followed. NIOSH recommends developing and implementing a hazardous energy control program including lockout and tagout procedures and worker training to prevent such incidents.
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Circumstances of Fatal Lockout/Tagout-related Injuries in Manufacturing
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: October 2008 / 51(10):728–734

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths and Injuries While Compacting or Baling Refuse Material
NIOSH Publication No. 2003-124 (July 2003)
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) is a multi-source data system maintained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to identify work-related deaths in the United States. A NIOSH review of the CFOI data identified 34 compactor-related fatalities during 1992–2000 in which the victim was caught in or crushed by the compacting ram of the machine.

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Worker Deaths from Uncontrolled Release of Electrical, Mechanical, and Other Types of Hazardous Energy
NIOSH Publication No. 99-110 (August 1999)
No detailed national data are available on the number of workers killed each year by contact with uncontrolled hazardous energy. However, during the period 1982–1997, NIOSH investigated 1,281 fatal incidents as part of their FACE Program. Of these, 152 involved installation, maintenance, service, or repair tasks on or near machines, equipment, processes, or systems.

Hazard Controls: Control of Scrap Paper Baler Crushing Hazards
NIOSH Publication No. 97-113 (April 1997)
This leaflet presents methods for controlling the crushing hazards associated with scrap paper balers. Exposure to crushing and amputation hazards exist for workers involved in loading, operating, or maintaining balers. Hazards also exist in the lockout procedures. Although sixteen and seventeen year old workers may legally load material into balers, they may not operate or maintain them. Three criteria are suggested for protecting workers from injury during operation of paper balers. First, the point of operation guarding must prevent workers from placing any parts of their body into hazardous areas during operation. Secondly, periodic inspection and maintenance of the equipment and the safeguarding devices must be conducted. Thirdly, workers must be trained in the safe operation of the equipment, understand the hazards related to bypassing safety devices, and recognize the limitations and effective operating ranges of safety devices. Requirements of the American National Standards Institutes for baling equipment safety are defined. Minimum performance requirements for the control of hazardous energy as set forth by OSHA also are noted.

Simulation of the After-Reach Hazard on Power Presses Using Dual Palm Button Actuation
Human Factors: February 1987 / 29(1):9–18

The Use of Safety Devices and Safety Controls at Industrial Machine Work Stations
Handbook of Human Factors: 1987 / :861–875

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