Flavorings Related Lung Disease: Resources
Best practices: Engineering Controls, Work Practices and Exposure Monitoring for Occupational Exposures to Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione
Department of Health and Human Services (NIOSH) Publication 2015-197
NIOSH has developed guidance in a variety of areas to reduce workers’ exposures to diacetyl through engineering controls, best work practices, and techniques for monitoring airborne diacetyl exposures.
Comments of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in response to Establishment of a Public Docket; Electronic Cigarettes and the Public Health Workshop, May 8, 2015 pdf icon[PDF – 152 KB]
Flavorings-related Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) and Technical Assistance Reports
In response to formal requests, NIOSH conducts HHEs of workplaces to determine whether workers are exposed to hazardous materials or harmful conditions and to provide recommendations for measures that can be taken for improvements. Search the HHE database for reports from workplaces with other exposures.
Flavoring-Related Lung Disease: Information for Healthcare Providers
NIOSH Publication No. 2012-148
This tri-fold brochure supplies healthcare providers with information about recognizing and reporting flavoring-related lung disease.
NIOSH Alert: Preventing Lung Disease in Workers Who Use or Make Flavorings
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-110
This Alert describes health effects that may occur because of workplace exposure to some flavorings or their ingredients, gives examples of workplace settings in which illness has occurred, and recommends steps that companies and workers should take to prevent hazardous exposures. Summary Sheet is available in Spanish (en Español)
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione
NIOSH Publication No. 2016-111
NIOSH developed a criteria document that provides a critical review of the scientific and technical information available on the prevalence of hazards, existence of health risks, and methods to identify and control exposures. The document also provides recommended exposure limits (RELs) for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione.
Flavorings-related journal articles with NIOSH authors
Literature related to flavorings authored by NIOSH employees.
A searchable bibliographic database of occupational safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)
A compendium of chemical data extracted from the open scientific literature.
International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)
Summaries of essential health and safety information on chemicals for their use at the “shop floor” level by workers and employers.
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
A source of general industrial hygiene information on several hundred chemicals for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals.
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods
A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants in workplace air and in the blood and urine of workers developed or adapted by NIOSH or its partners.
Other Governmental Resources
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
- OSHA Safety and Health Topics: Flavoring-related Lung Diseaseexternal icon
- OSHA Chemical Sampling Information: Diacetylexternal icon
- OSHA Chemical Sampling Information: 2,3-Pentanedioneexternal icon
California Department of Public Health
Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, Safety & Health Assessment & Research for Prevention (SHARP) Program