CHILDHOOD AGRICULTURAL INJURY PREVENTION INITIATIVE
Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) Results
Frequently Asked Questions
What is CAIS?
CAIS is an acronym for the Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey. CAIS data are collected for NIOSH by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service.
What data are available from CAIS?
Users can get estimates for the number of youth on farms in the U.S., and estimates for the number of injuries to youth that occurred on these farms.
How is an injury defined?
An injury is any traumatic event occurring on the farm operation resulting in at least 4 hours or more of restricted activity, or requiring professional medical treatment.
How is a work-related injury defined?
A work-related injury is any injury that occurred while performing work or chores on the farm that was associated with the farm business, regardless of whether the work was performed for pay.
Where does CAIS get its data?
The data were collected through an interagency agreement between NIOSH and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. The survey was conducted by telephone interview.
How was the survey designed?
Between 2001 and 2012, CAIS was based on a simple random sample of 50,000 U.S. farm operations stratified regionally. In 2014, the CAIS sample was increased to 75,000 U.S. farm operations. The CAIS sample was drawn using the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service list frame from the Census of Agriculture.
How are demographic and injury estimates generated?
Sampling weights for CAIS were calculated based on the total number of farms responding by geographical region and the number of farms reported by NASS in the appropriate year for each region. The nine geographical regions used are those defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census . Finally, weights were adjusted based on three farm value of sales categories ($10,000, $10,000 - $99,999, > $99,999).
What are the survey limitations?
There are several limitations to the estimates derived from CAIS. First, the recall period for an injury was up to 15 months. While the definition of injury excluded minor injuries, which may be forgotten, there is still the possibility that a reportable injury was not remembered by a respondent. A second limitation is that most of the respondents were the female head of household, which may have resulted in an under reporting of hired youth injuries, especially for larger farming operations with many employees. Third, there was no way to verify the accuracy or completeness of the responses, which could impart some measurement error into the overall results. Fourth, the survey did not capture injuries that occurred to young contract farm workers. A final limitation is the possibility of a non-response bias. Due to the survey design, it was not possible to make a second contact to farm operators who refused to participate in the survey. This did not allow for a follow back questionnaire to assess these refusals.
Can I compare estimates from CAIS to other public health data?
Caution should be used in comparing the estimates from CAIS to those reported from other public health data sets. A careful review of the definitions, methods, and limitations of these data should be made before making comparisons to other published reports or studies.
Are there privacy restrictions on CAIS data?
Yes. CAIS data can be used for aggregate statistical reporting and analysis only. The data available through CAIS are for public use and do not include information that would allow for the identification of an individual or a farm.
These data are covered under United States Code, Title 18, Sections 1902 and 1905; and Title 7, Section 2276.
CAIS users should:
- Use the CAIS data for aggregate or summary statistical reporting and analysis only.
- Not link CAIS results with individually identifiable data from other NIOSH or non-NIOSH data files.
- Make no use of the identity of any farm operation or individual discovered inadvertently and advise the Director, NIOSH, of any such discovery (800-35-NIOSH).
By using these data, you signify your agreement to comply with the above-stated statutorily based requirements.
What is the suggested citation for data from the CAIS tables?
When citing data obtained from CAIS, each citation should include the data source, the web address, and the date of access. The suggested citation is:
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) public-use data, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2014. August 2016. Accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/childag/CAIS/ on [date of access].
- Page last reviewed: August 1, 2016
- Page last updated: August 1, 2016
- Content source:
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Safety Research