CAS No. 123-91-1

1,4-Dioxane (CHO) is a colorless liquid or solid at cool temperatures (below 53°F). It can harm the eyes, skin, lungs, liver, and kidneys. 1,4-Dioxane may cause cancer. Workers may be harmed from exposure to 1,4-dioxane. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done.

1,4-Dioxane is used in many industries. It is used as an industrial solvent, a laboratory reagent, and in the manufacture of other chemicals. Some examples of workers at risk of being exposed to 1,4-dioxane include the following:

  • Employees working in scientific laboratories
  • Workers exposed to certain types of industrial solvents
  • Factory workers involved in producing some cosmetics
  • Workers in paper pulping industries

NIOSH recommends that employers use Hierarchy of Controls to prevent injuries. If you work in an industry that uses 1,4-dioxane, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. Visit NIOSH’s page on Managing Chemical Safety in the Workplace to learn more about controlling chemical workplace exposures.

The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Useful search terms for 1,4-dioxane include “diethylene dioxide,” “diethylene ether,” “dioxane,” “1,4-dioxane,” and “p-dioxane.”

NIOSH Chemical Resources

Logo of NIOSH Pocket Guide

The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) helps workers, employers, and occupational health professionals recognize and control workplace chemical hazards.

Logo of Manual of Analytical Methods.

The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) is a collection of methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants in workplace air, and in the blood and urine of workers who are occupationally exposed.

Logo of Health Hazard Evaluations consisting of three letters: HHE

The Health Hazard Evaluation Program (HHE) conducts onsite investigations of possible worker exposure to chemicals. Search the HHE database for more information on 1,4-dioxane.

Related NIOSH Resources

  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on 1,4-dioxane—NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH.
  • NIOSH Worker Health Study Summaries—NIOSH conducts research to prevent illnesses and injuries in the workplace. The NIOSH Worker Notification Program notifies workers and other stakeholders about the findings of these research studies.

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International Resources

Page last reviewed: November 2, 2018