Wholesale and Retail Trade

Program Description

The NIOSH Wholesale and Retail Trade sector program is focused on the prevention of occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses for more than 21 million workers. This is accomplished through a program of research and applied interventions.

Three warehouse workers examine contents inside a cardboard box.

The WRT program’s main objective is to develop and implement interventions to reduce the rate of work-related injuries and illnesses using the Public Health Model. The model is based on the following four functions:

  • Improving health-related surveillance
  • Conducting research to establish causal relationships between workplace hazards and adverse health outcomes
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to reduce injuries and illnesses
  • Sharing this information with employees, employers, practitioners, academic partners, and professional and labor trade associations

WRT program priority worker populations consist of permanent and temporary employees who are at risk of incurring workplace fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses. For example, the contingent worker is a temporary worker with a job that is not expected to last, who is more likely to be young, female, black or Hispanic and have a lower income with fewer benefits. An increasing body of evidence suggests that contingent workers are at higher risk of work-related injury than those who have been on the job for a longer period.

The program helps government agencies, employers, and other organizations take steps to improve the overall health and well-being of the WRT workforce.

Wholesale and Retail Sector NAICS codes

The NIOSH Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) Program includes the Wholesale and Retail Trade sectors, which are designated by North American Industry Classification System external icon industries 42 and 44-45. WRT focuses on subsectors with the highest rates of work-related injuries/illnesses and fatalities. This includes, among others, the Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods [NAICS 424], Merchant wholesalers, durable goods [NAICS 423], Building material and garden equipment and supply stores [NAICS 444], the Food and beverage stores [NAICS 445], the Furniture and home furnishing stores [NAICS 442], the General merchandise stores [NAICS 452], and the Motor vehicle and parts dealers [NAICS 441].

In 2018, the wholesale sector consisted of three subsectors, 413,437 establishments  and 3.6 million employees.

Table 1. NAICS Wholesale Subsectors

Table 1
NAICS Code NAICS Subsector Title Establishments within Subsectors Number of Workers
423 Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods Merchant wholesalers of: Motor Vehicle and Motor Vehicle Parts and Supplies; Furniture and Home Furnishing; Lumber and Other Construction Materials; Professional and Commercial Equipment and Supplies; Metal and Mineral (except Petroleum); Household Appliances and Electrical and Electronic Goods; Hardware, and Plumbing and Heating Equipment and Supplies; Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies; Miscellaneous durable goods 1,696,000
424 Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods Merchant Wholesalers of: Paper and Paper Product; Drugs, Sundries, and Chemical and Allied Products; Apparel, Piece Goods, and Notions; Grocery and Related Product; Farm Product Raw Material; Petroleum and Petroleum Products; Alcoholic Beverage; Miscellaneous Nondurable Goods 1,882,000
425 Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers 95,000
Total 3,671,000

U.S. Census [2018]. Number of firms, number of establishments, employment, and annual payroll by enterprise employment size for the United States, All Industries: 2018. U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Census Bureau. Updated March 15, 2019. Source: U.S., 4-digit NAICS.

 

In 2018, the retail sector consisted of twelve subsectors, over one million establishments, and 16.7 million employees.

Table 2. NAICS Retail Subsectors

Table 2
NAICS

Code

NAICS Subsector Title Establishments within Subsectors Number of Workers
441 Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers Automobile Dealers; Other Motor Vehicle Dealers; Automotive Parts, Accessories, and Tire Stores 2,030,000
442 Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores Furniture Stores; Home Furnishings Stores 603,000
443 Electronics and Appliance Stores Electronics and Appliance Stores 581,000
444 Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers Building Material and Supplies Dealers; Lawn and Garden Equipment and Supplies Stores 1,509,000
445 Food and Beverage Stores Grocery Stores; Specialty Food Stores; Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores 3,128,000
446 Health and Personal Care Stores Pharmacies and Drug Stores; Health and Personal Care Store, except drug, stores 1,346,000
447 Gasoline Stations Gasoline Stations; Fuel dealers 478,000
448 Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores Clothing Stores; Shoe Stores; Jewelry, Luggage, and Leather Goods Stores 1,301,000
451 Sporting Goods, Hobby, Musical Instrument, and Book Stores Sporting Goods, and Hobby and Toy Stores; Book Stores and News Dealers; Musical Instrument and Supplies Stores 661,000
452 General Merchandise Stores Department Stores and Discount Stores; Miscellaneous General Merchandise Stores 2,533,000
453 Miscellaneous Store Retailers Retail Florists; Office Supplies and Stationery Stores; Used Merchandise Stores; Used Merchandise Stores 1,177,000
454 Nonstore Retailers Electronic Shopping; Mail-Order Houses; Vending Machine Operators; Other Direct Selling Establishments 819,000
Total 16,599,000

U.S. Census [2018]. Number of firms, number of establishments, employment, and annual payroll by enterprise employment size for the United States, All Industries: 2018. U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Census Bureau. Updated March 15, 2019. Source: U.S., 4-digit NAICS.

Page last reviewed: May 21, 2018