Temperature and humidity tests for mobile refuge alternatives.
Yan L; Yantek D; Bissert P
Creating value in a cyclical environment, SME annual conference and expo 2017, February 19-22, 2017, Denver, Colorado. Englewood, CO: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., 2017 May; :578-582
Federal regulations require refuge alternatives (RAs) in underground coal mines to sustain life for 96 hours while maintaining an apparent temperature (AT) below 35 degrees C (95 degrees F). NIOSH research has shown that heat and humidity buildup is a major concern with RAs because they have a limited ability to dissipate heat, and high internal air temperature and relative humidity (RH) may expose occupants to heat stress. The heat transfer process within and surrounding an RA is very complex and is not easily defined analytically nor experimentally. To investigate heat and humidity buildup in RAs, NIOSH conducted multiple in-mine 96-hour tests on a 6-person metal-type RA, a 23-person tent-type RA, and a 10-person tent-type RA. The test results show that when moisture was introduced into the tests to represent perspiration and respiration from miners (wet tests), the average measured internal air temperature at midheight increased by 7.7 degrees C, 9.4 degrees C, and 10.5 degrees C, and the RH approached 95%, 94%, and 88%, respectively. For the dry tests when no moisture was introduced, the average internal temperature increased by 8.4 degrees C, 10.3 degrees C, and 12.6 degrees C, respectively.
Mining; Mining-industry; Refuge chambers; Emergency shelters; Emergency equipment; Underground mines; Miners; Coal miners; Humans; Equipment testing; Heat; Regulations; Humidity; Thermal properties; Air temperature; Temperature control; Temperature effects; Temperature measurement; Temperature regulation; Relative humidity; Heat regulation; Heat stress; Respiration; Perspiration
L. Yan, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh, PA
Creating value in a cyclical environment, SME annual conference and expo 2017, February 19-22, 2017, Denver, Colorado