Standardized assessment of birth defects and reproductive disorders in environmental health field studies. Terracciano GJ, Lemasters GK, Amler RW, eds. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1996 Sep; :71-113
Five major disorders of male reproduction can be affected by toxicant exposure: infertility, sexual dysfunction, hormonal disorders, pregnancy and birth abnormalities, and semen abnormalities. However, no simple prescreening method has yet been validated; questionnaires alone are too imprecise and inefficient. Semen collection and analyses are critical components of field studies of male reproductive disorders for two key reasons: (1) changes in sperm or seminal content can be associated with changes infertility potential of an individual and (2) defects in sperm DNA or chromosomes can be associated with subsequent changes in viability during development and health risks to the offspring. Additional considerations for effective field studies are: (1) accurately timed and well-characterized exposure data for each study participant; (2) adequate numbers of participants as dictated by the statistical power of the biomarkers to be employed,· and (3) proper semen specimen collection and storage, and standardized analyses. Semen analyses can be conducted in two phases (tiers): (1) conventional first tier semen assays as well as specific biomarkers indicated by the health effect of concern in the study population; and (2) later, second tier analyses of archived specimens, if indicated.
Humans; Men; Reproductive system disorders; Reproductive system; Reproduction; Infertility; Biomarkers; Toxins; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Sexual dysfunction; Hormones; Pregnancy; Birth defects; Questionnaires; Spermatozoa; DNA; Deoxyribonucleic acids; Chromosome disorders; Health effects; Health hazards; Children
Terracciano GJ; Lemasters GK; Amler RW
Standardized assessment of birth defects and reproductive disorders in environmental health field studies
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