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Toxicological evaluation of graphene nanomaterials that differ in size and oxidative form following pharyngeal aspiration in mice.

Roberts J; Stefaniak AB; Kodali V; Mercer RR; Chaudhuri IS; Kyrlidis A; Seehra M; Geddam UK; Bishop L; Roach KA; Schwegler-Berry D; Sager T; Farris BY; McLoughlin CE; Eye T; Wolfarth MG; Porter DW; Castranova V; Erdely A
nanoTOX 2016, Proceedings of the 8th International Nanotoxicology Congress, June 1-4, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts. Boston: MA: International Nanotoxicology Congress, 2016 Jun; :234
As manufacturing of various graphene nanoparticles (GNP) expands, there is concern for the health effects due to pulmonary exposure in workers. Studies were conducted evaluating pulmonary toxicity of GNP of different size and oxidative form. Mice were exposed by pharyngeal-aspiration to 4 or 40 mg of non-oxidized graphite nanoplates (Gr) of different sizes (20 mm lateral, 7-10 nm thick; 5 mm lateral, 7-10 nm thick; <2 microm lateral, 1-2 nm thick), an oxidized-intermediate similar in size to 5 mm Gr (GO), or the reduced form of GO (rGO; approximately 1-2 mm lateral dimension post-dispersion). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and carbon black (CB, 15 nm diameter) were particle controls. Lavage, histopathology, and RNA analysis were performed 4-hr, 1-d, 7-d, 1-m, and 2-m post-exposure. On a mass basis, the larger sizes of Gr were found to be more inflammatory compared to the smaller size. However, Gr, GO, and CB caused transient lung inflammation/injury when compared to rGO and MWCNT. 40 mg rGO also caused a pulmonary fibrotic response comparable to MWCNT. rGO is less dense and has smaller dimensions than Gr and GO; therefore, at the same dose, a greater particle volume/number was delivered to the lungs at the high dose of rGO compared to the larger Gr. rGO at 4 mg was more equivalent by volume to 40 mg of Gr particles, and did not produce persistent toxicity in the lung. Taken together, the data suggest that GNP chemistry may play a role in toxicity, however lateral size/aspect ratio may be more critical.
Nanotechnology; Nanoparticles; Graphene; Ultrafine-particulates; Nanotoxicology; Biological-effects; Health-hazards; Toxicology; Nanomaterials; Exposure assessment; Exposure levels; Laboratory animals; Laboratory testing; Pulmonary system; Pulmonary system disorders; Immune reaction; Carbon black; Particle diameter; Particle size; Oxidation; Dispersion; Fibrosis; Ribonucleic acids; RNA; Chemical composition; Histopathology; Author Keywords: Carbon-based nanomaterials; In vivo toxicology; graphene; pulmonary toxicology
308068-56-6; 1034343-98-0; 1333-86-4
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nanoTOX 2016, Proceedings of the 8th International Nanotoxicology Congress, June 1-4, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts
Page last reviewed: May 11, 2023
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division