The early incorporation of exposure assessment can be invaluable to help design, prioritize, and interpret toxicological studies or outcomes. The sum total of the exposure assessment findings combined with preliminary toxicology results allows for exposure-informed toxicological study design and the findings can then be integrated, together with available epidemiologic data, to provide health effect relevance. With regard to engineered nanomaterial inhalation toxicology in particular, a single type of material (e.g. carbon nanotube, graphene) can have a vast array of physicochemical characteristics resulting in the potential for varying toxicities. To compound the matter, the methodologies necessary to establish a material adequate for in vivo exposure testing raises questions on the applicability of the outcomes. From insights gained from evaluating carbon nanotubes, we recommend the following integrated approach involving exposure-informed hazard assessment and hazard-informed exposure assessment especially for materials as diverse as engineered nanomaterials: 1) market-informed identification of potential hazards and potentially exposed populations, 2) initial toxicity screening to drive prioritized assessments of exposure, 3) development of exposure assessment-informed chronic and sub-chronic in vivo studies, and 4) conduct of exposure- and hazard-informed epidemiological studies.
Exposure assessment; Toxicology; Epidemiology; Health effects; Nanomaterials; Nanotechnology; Carbon nanotubes; Graphene; Physical properties; Chemical properties; Toxins; Toxic materials; In vivo study; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Hazards;
Author Keywords: Exposure assessment; Inhalation; Carbon nanotube; Toxicology; Nanomaterial; Epidemiology
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