Musculoskeletal diseases: types, causes and treatments. Reed G, ed. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015 Jan; :1-38
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) are one of the leading classes of health effects and can be caused by various factors, work related and nonwork related. MSD refers to health related problems of the locomotor apparatus, i.e. health problems of the skeleton, ligament, muscles, tendons, joints, nerves and cartilage. Rates of MSD vary by population, their age groups, genders, socioeconomic aspects and other factors. These factors can affect our understanding of the prevalence, incidence, and costs of MSD aside from the variability of actual prevalence or incidence rates due to etiologic issues or costs due to illness or injury severity or treatment response and recovery. This chapter focuses on types of MSD of employed individuals, and associated medical costs and demographic factors. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) classifies occupational MSD as cases where nature of injury or illness is pinched nerve; herniated disc; meniscus tear; sprains, strains, tears; hernia (traumatic and nontraumatic); pain, swelling, and numbness; carpal or tarsal tunnel syndrome; Raynaud's syndrome or phenomenon; musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases and disorders, when the event or exposure leading to the injury or illness is overexertion and bodily reaction, unspecified; overexertion involving outside sources; repetitive motion involving micro tasks; other and multiple exertions or bodily reactions; and rubbed, abraded, or jarred by vibration The economic burden of occupational MSDs is very high. BLS reports that about 30 percent of all occupational injuries involving days away from work are due to MSDs. While some studies have focused on economic burden, here we concentrate on the costs of assessment and treatment of MSDs. MarketScan databases are used to analyze these medical costs by ICD9 codes for the year 2010. These databases consist of millions of records on medical claims classified by ICD9 codes, different medical cost components and some socioeconomic and demographic variables. The results obtained in this study suggests that the average costs per person among the three body regions (neck, upper back and lower back) of focus in this analysis were found to be highest for upper back in the inpatient data and for lower back in the outpatient data. Approximately half (25 out of 47) ICD-9 codes with the highest average costs per person in the inpatient data consisted of intervertebral disc, spinal stenosis, and spinal curvature codes. Of the outpatient service records examined, 23 out of 50 codes were for intervertebral disc, spinal curvature, and spinal stenosis diagnoses.
Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Workers; Occupations; Back-injuries; Spinal-cord; Injuries; Diseases; Information-retrieval-systems; Information-processing; Statistical-analysis; Lost-work-days; Sociological-factors; Demographic-characteristics; Medical-care; Medical-services; Medical-treatment; Physical-therapy; Skeletal-system; Muscles; Nerves; Age-groups; Sex-factors; Etiology; Repetitive-work; Carpal-tunnel-syndrome; Connective-tissue; Overloading; Vibration-exposure; Body-regions; Biological-effects