The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and practical guide to occupational health professionals concerning the derivation and use of dose estimates in risk assessment for development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for inhaled substances. Dosimetry is the study and practice of measuring or estimating the internal dose of a substance in individuals or a population. Dosimetry thus provides an essential link to understanding the relationship between an external exposure and a biological response. Use of dosimetry principles and tools can improve the accuracy of risk assessment, and reduce the uncertainty, by providing reliable estimates of the internal dose at the target tissue. This is accomplished through specific measurement data or predictive models, when available, or the use of basic dosimetry principles for broad classes of materials. Accurate dose estimation is essential not only for dose-response assessment, but also for interspecies extrapolation and for risk characterization at given exposures. Inhalation dosimetry is the focus of this paper since it is a major route of exposure in the workplace. Practical examples of dose estimation and OEL derivation are provided for inhaled gases and particulates. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2018.1430971"target="_blank">Corrigendum J Occup Environ Hyg 2018 Apr; 15(4):D31:</a> An incorrect value appears on p. S25. In the description after equation (3), the value of the rat ventilation rate should be 0.21 L/min for a 300 g rat (based on Equation 4-4 and Table 4-6 in reference #4 of this article). Thus, the solution to the example equation at the bottom of the first column on p. S25 should be 1.18 mg/m3. The authors apologize for any inconvenience caused.
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