Earth conductivity estimation from through-the-earth measurements of 94 coal mines using different electromagnetic models.
Yan-LC; Waynert-J; Sunderman-C
Appl Comput Electromagn Soc J 2014 Oct; 29(10):755-762
Through-the-Earth (TTE) communication systems require minimal infrastructure to operate. Hence, they are assumed to be more survivable and more conventional than other underground mine communications systems. This survivability is a major advantage for TTE systems. In 2006, Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER Act), which requires all underground coal mines to install wireless communications systems. The intent behind this mandate is for trapped miners to be able to communicate with surface personnel after a major accident - hence, the interest in TTE communications. To determine the likelihood of establishing a TTE communication link, it would be ideal to be able to predict the apparent conductivity of the overburden above underground mines. In this paper, all 94 mine TTE measurement data collected by Bureau of Mines in the 1970s and early 1980s, are analyzed for the first time to determine the apparent conductivity of the overburden based on three different models: a homogenous half-space model, a thin sheet model, and an attenuation factor or Q-factor model. A statistical formula is proposed to estimate the apparent earth conductivity for a specific mine based on the TTE modeling results given the mine depth and signal frequency.
Communication-systems; Underground-mining; Coal-mining; Accidents; Radio-waves; Models;
Author Keywords: Communication; conductivity; electromagnetic field; Extremely Low Frequency; ELF; Through-the-Earth; TTE; Very Low Frequency; VLF
Yan, LC, NIOSH, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 USA
Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal