Influence of lake trophic structure on iodine-131 accumulation and subsequent cumulative radiation dose to trout thyroids.
Martinez NE; Johnson TE; Pinder JE III
J Environ Radioact 2014 May; 131:62-71
Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of (131) through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of (131) deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems have been less studied. In this study we: (1) reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of (131) into two small lakes; (2) compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on the accumulation of (131) by fish; (3) relate concentrations in fish and fish tissues to that in the water column using empirically estimated uptake (L kg(-1) d(-1)) and loss (d(-1)) parameters; and (4) show that the largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) may occur from 8 to 32 days after initial release. Iodine-131 concentration in trout thyroids at 30-days post release may be >1000 times that in the water. Estimates of cumulative radiation dose (mGy) to thyroids computed using an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure within the Monte Carlo N-particle modeling software predicted cumulative thyroid doses that increased approximately linearly after the first 8 days and resulted in 32-day cumulative thyroid doses that ranged from 6 mGy g(-1) to 18 mGy g(-1) per 1 Bq mL(-1) of initial (131) in the water depending upon fish size. The majority of this dose is due to beta emissions, and the dose varies with positions in the thyroid tissue.
Thyroid-gland; Thyroid-gland-disorders; Chemical-properties; Chemical-composition; Fishing-industry; Radiation-properties; Radiation-levels; Models;
Author Keywords: Iodine-131; Fish thyroids; Cumulative dose; Food webs; Modeling; Lakes
Nicole E. Martinez, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
University of Colorado, Denver