Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community.
Armstrong-JL; Yost-MG; Fenske-RA
Chemosphere 2014 Sep; 111:135-143
Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. We investigate sampling methodologies using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling device to measure cumulative monthly airborne concentrations of OP pesticides chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs. Passive sampling rates (m3 d-1) were determined using calculations using chemical properties, loss of depuration compounds, and calibration with side-by-side active air sampling in a dynamic laboratory exposure chamber and in the field. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity on outdoor sampling rates were examined at 23 sites in Yakima Valley, Washington. Indoor sampling rates were significantly lower than outdoors. Outdoor rates significantly increased with average wind velocity, with high rates (>4 m3 d-1) observed above 8 m s-1. In exposure chamber studies, very little oxygen analog was observed on the PUF-PAS, yet substantial amounts chlorpyrifos-oxon and azinphos methyl oxon were measured in outdoor samples. PUF-PAS is a practical and useful alternative to AAS because it results in little artificial transformation to the oxygen analog during sampling, it provides cumulative exposure estimates, and the measured sampling rates were comparable to rates for other SVOCs. It is ideal for community based participatory research due to low subject burden and simple deployment in remote areas.
Agriculture; Chemical-composition; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Insecticides; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Sampling; Polyurethane-foams; Air-sampling; Airborne-particles; Pesticides;
Author Keywords: Azinphos-methyl (AZM); Chlorpyrifos (CPF); Exposure; Oxygen analog; Passive air sampling; PUF-PAS
Jenna L. Armstrong, University of Washington School of PublicHealth, Seattle, WA 98105
University of Washington