Impulse noise can cause immediate damage to the inner ear; furthermore, tinnitus and hearing loss are the #1 and #2 disabilities for military veterans. Impulse noise is a serious problem for law enforcement, the military, construction, manufacturing, and other industries. Research has established that impulsive noise has a greater risk of causing hearing impairment than for continuous noise at the same sound level. In the same way a laser light can damage the retina of the eye before the pupil can naturally contract to protect it, impulsive noises "sneak up" on the ear and pass through to the inner part of the ear causing permanent damage before the middle ear bones stiffen up and provide natural protection. Unfortunately, existing sound level meters and noise dosimeters do not account for the increased damage of impulsive over continuous noise hazards. Actually, in the measurement and analysis of impulsive sound signals, only techniques for continuous noise currently exist. PHS engineers are working to solve this problem by developing and evaluating new measurement and data analysis techniques.