Purpose: Both heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) have been shown to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in population studies and in clinically-based studies among participants with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations of depressive symptoms with heart rate and heart rate variability among Buffalo, NY police officers. Methods: Using standardized methods HR and high frequency (HF) HRV were measured in 361 police officers. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) questionnaire. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of depressive symptom scores with HR and HRV. Mean levels of HR and HF HRV were examined across quintiles of depressive symptom scores using ANOVA. Means were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking status, physical activity and beta-blocker medication. Results: In our population mean age was 41 years old, 75% were male and 89% were Caucasian. Depressive symptom scores were not associated with HF HRV. However, HR increased across increasing quintiles of depressive symptom scores (61.5, 62.3, 63.4, 64.6, 66.6 respectively, p¼0.003); after adjustment, the trend remained significant (p¼0.010). Depressive Symptoms Scores were not significantly associated with HF HRV (p¼0.183). Conclusions: This study may be limited by its cross-sectional design and small sample size. Our findings revealed a positive and independent association between depressive symptoms and HR. Future studies could employ a prospective design and examine a larger population to determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with heart rate variability.
Heart-rate; Heart; Cardiovascular-disease; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Mortality-rates; Morbidity-rates; Police-officers; Law-enforcement-workers; Questionnaires; Models; Age-groups; Humans; Men; Women; Racial-factors; Alcohols; Smoking; Physical-fitness; Demographic-characteristics; Statistical-analysis