NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

A prospective cohort study of the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and self-reported maternal health symptoms during pregnancy in Bangladesh.

Kile ML; Rodrigues EG; Mazumdar M; Dobson CB; Diao N; Golam M; Quamruzzaman Q; Rahman M; Christiani DC
Environ Health 2014 Apr; 13:29
BACKGROUND: Arsenic, a common groundwater pollutant, is associated with adverse reproductive health but few studies have examined its effect on maternal health. METHODS: A prospective cohort was recruited in Bangladesh from 2008-2011 (N=1,458). At enrollment (<16 weeks gestational age [WGA]), arsenic was measured in personal drinking water using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Questionnaires collected health data at enrollment, at 28 WGA, and within one month of delivery. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for self-reported health symptoms were estimated for each arsenic quartile using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, the mean concentration of arsenic was 38 µg/L (Standard deviation, 92.7 µg/L). A total of 795 women reported one or more of the following symptoms during pregnancy (cold/flu/infection, nausea/vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, vaginal bleeding, or swollen ankles). Compared to participants exposed to the lowest quartile of arsenic (<0.9 µg/L), the aOR for reporting any symptom during pregnancy was 0.62 (95% CI=0.44-0.88) in the second quartile, 1.83 (95% CI=1.25-2.69) in the third quartile, and 2.11 (95% CI=1.42-3.13) in the fourth quartile where the mean arsenic concentration in each quartile was 1.5 µg/L, 12.0 µg/L and 144.7 µg/L, respectively. Upon examining individual symptoms, only nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping showed consistent associations with arsenic exposure. The odds of self-reported nausea/vomiting was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.41), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.18), and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.60) in the second, third and fourth quartile of arsenic relative to the lowest quartile after adjusting for age, body mass index, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, educational status, parity, anemia, ferritin, medication usage, type of sanitation at home, and household income. A positive trend was also observed for abdominal cramping (P for trend <0.0001). A marginal negative association was observed between arsenic quartiles and odds of self-reported cold/flu/infection (P for trend=0.08). No association was observed between arsenic and self-reported headache (P for trend=0.19). CONCLUSION: Moderate exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water early in pregnancy was associated with increased odds of experiencing nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping. Preventing exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water during pregnancy could improve maternal health.
Arsenic-compounds; Pollutants; Hazards; Exposure-levels; Prenatal-exposure; Pregnancy; Questionnaires; Humans; Women; Author Keywords: Arsenic; Maternal health; Nausea; Vomiting; Cramping; Environmental health; Reproductive health
Molly L Kile, Department of Public Health, College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, 15 Milam, Corvallis, OR 97331
Publication Date
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
Funding Type
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008416; M102014
Source Name
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Performing Organization
Harvard School of Public Health
Page last reviewed: April 9, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division