Factors associated with the development of expertise in heart failure self-care.
Riegel-B; Dickson-V; Goldberg-LR; Deatrick-JA
Nurs Res 2007 Jul/Aug; 56(4):235-243
Background: Self-care is vital for successful heart failure (HF) management. Mastering self-care is challenging; few patients develop sufficient expertise to avoid repeated hospitalization. Objective: To describe and understand how expertise in HF self-care develops. Methods: Extreme case sampling was used to identify 29 chronic HF patients predominately poor or particularly good in self-care. Using a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) design, participants were interviewed about HF self-care, surveyed to measure factors anticipated to influence self-care, and tested for cognitive functioning. Audiotaped interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were combined to produce a multidimensional typology of patients poor, good, or expert in HF self-care. Results: Only 10.3% of the sample was expert in HF selfcare. Patients poor in HF self-care had worse cognition, more sleepiness, higher depression, and poorer family functioning. The primary factors distinguishing those good versus expert in self-care were sleepiness and family engagement. Experts had less daytime sleepiness and more support from engaged loved ones who fostered selfcare skill development. b Conclusion: Engaged supporters can help persons with chronic HF to overcome seemingly insurmountable barriers to self-care. Research is needed to understand the effects of excessive daytime sleepiness on HF self-care.
Humans; Men; Women; Behavior; Attitude; Heart; Cardiac-function; Cardiopulmonary-function; Cardiopulmonary-system; Cardiopulmonary-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-disease; Cardiovascular-function; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Sampling; Psychology; Psychological-responses; Psychological-effects; Sleep-disorders;
Author Keywords: cognition; family; mixed methods; naturalistic decission making; sleep
Barbara Riegel, DNSc, RN, CS, FAAN, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, 420 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6096
University of Pennsylvania