Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide.
Brock-K; Anderson-SE; Lukomska-E; Long-C; Anderson-K; Marshall-N; Meade-BJ
J Immunotoxicol 2014 Jul-Sep; 11(3):268-272
In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5-10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size550 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin.
Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Pathology; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Pulmonary-disorders; Alveolar-cells; Fibrosis; Respiration; Respiratory-system-disorders; Indium-compounds; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Metal-compounds; Metallic-compounds; Models; Analytical-processes; Biomarkers; Skin-exposure; Skin;
Author Keywords: Immune stimulation; immunotoxicity; unsintered indium tin oxide
Stacey E. Anderson, PhD, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1095 Willowdale Drive, Morgantown, WV 26505
Journal of Immunotoxicology