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Acculturation-related risk factors of low-level and intermittent smoking among Latinos in California.

Rodriquez M; Stoecklin-Marois M; Hennessy-Burt T; Schenker M
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012 May; 185(Meeting Abstracts):A2583
RATIONALE: Cigarette smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the U.S. While Latinos smoke at lower rates than non-Latino Whites and Blacks, patterns of cigarette smoking differ among Latino subtypes. California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data were used to characterize low-level (1-5 cigarettes per day (CPD)) and intermittent (not daily) smokers and identify risk factors of low-level and intermittent smoking among Latinos. METHODS: CHIS is a random-digit-dial telephone survey, conducted biennially, examining the health of Californians. This analysis includes 8,307 Latinos from nine ethnic subtypes who completed interviews in 2009. Smokers were identified as participants who smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. Current smokers who smoked 1-5 CPD were categorized as low-level smokers. Intermittent smokers were comprised of current smokers reporting smoking some days. Acculturation-related measures assessed included percentage of life in U.S., language spoken with friends, and language preference watching TV, listening to radio, and reading newspapers. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Sample weights were specified to account for the survey design. RESULTS: Mean age was 45 years; 60% were female. 78% self-identified as Mexican, 9% Central American, 3.5% Latino European, 3% South American, and 1% Puerto Rican. 57% were foreign-born. Median household income was $29,000; 60% reported a twelfth grade education or lower. 45% of men and 21% of women reported ever smoking (p<0.0001). 48% of male and 37% of female smokers were intermittent smokers (p=0.002). Sex did not differ by low-level smoking. In models adjusted for age and sex, foreign birth was associated with both low-level (OR=2.76;95%CI:1.58-4.81) and intermittent (OR=1.93;95%CI:1.13-3.27) smoking. Puerto Ricans were less likely than Mexicans to be low-level smokers (OR=0.25;95%CI:0.08-0.79); no differences in Latino subtype by intermittent smoking. Compared to speaking only Spanish with friends, speaking both English and Spanish with friends was associated with intermittent smoking (OR=1.93;95%CI:1.11-3.36). Smokers who watched TV, listened to radio, and read newspapers in English and Spanish were more likely to be low-level smokers than smokers who engaged in these activities solely in Spanish (OR=2.11;95%CI:1.17-3.83). CONCLUSION: Among Latinos, acculturation-related factors are associated with both low-level and intermittent cigarette smoking. Additionally, patterns of smoking differ by age, sex, and Latino subtype. Longitudinal research on changes in smoking should build upon our understanding of the dynamics between acculturation and low-level/intermittent smoking. These findings highlight the importance of tailoring smoking education and cessation intervention programs targeting Latino immigrants.
Racial-factors; Smoking; Cigarette-smoking; Tobacco-smoke; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Sociological-factors; Disease-prevention; Health-surveys; Behavior; Risk-factors; Adaptation; Demographic-characteristics; Humans; Men; Women; Education
E. Rodriquez, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA
Publication Date
Document Type
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement; Agriculture
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Source Name
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis
Page last reviewed: March 3, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division