Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US-Mexico border.
Sabo-S; Shaw-S; Ingram-M; Teufel-Shone-N; Carvajal-S; de Zapien-JG; Rosales-C; Redondo-F; Garcia-G; Rubio-Goldsmith-R
Soc Sci Med 2014 May; 109:66-74
Immigration laws that militarize communities may exacerbate ethno-racial health disparities. We aimed to document the prevalence of and ways in which immigration enforcement policy and militarization of the US-Mexico border is experienced as everyday violence. Militarization is defined as the saturation of and pervasive encounters with immigration officials including local police enacting immigration and border enforcement policy with military style tactics and weapons. Data were drawn from a random household sample of US citizen and permanent residents of Mexican descent in the Arizona border region (2006e2008). Qualitative and quantitative data documented the frequency and nature of immigration related profiling, mistreatment and resistance to institutionalized victimization. Participants described living and working in a highly militarized environment, wherein immigration-related profiling and mistreatment were common immigration law enforcement practices. Approximately 25% of respondents described an immigration-related mistreatment episode, of which 62% were personally victimized. Nearly 75% of episodes occurred in a community location rather than at a US port of entry. Participant mistreatment narratives suggest the normalization of immigration-related mistreatment among the population. Given border security remains at the core of immigration reform debates, it is imperative that scholars advance the understanding of the public health impact of such enforcement policies on the daily lives of Mexican-origin US permanent residents, and their non-immigrant US citizen co-ethnics. Immigration policy that sanctions institutional practices of discrimination, such as ethnoracial profiling and mistreatment, are forms of structural racism and everyday violence. Metrics and systems for monitoring immigration and border enforcement policies and institutional practices deleterious to the health of US citizens and residents should be established.
Humans; Men; Women; Racial-factors; Sociological-factors; Force; Law-enforcement-workers; Stress; Farms; Agricultural-workers; Agricultural-industry; Agriculture; Psychology; Statistical-analysis; Age-groups;
Author Keywords: USA; US-Mexico border; Immigration; Mistreatment; Discrimination; Stress; Farmworkers
Samantha Sabo, University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, Arizona Prevention Research Center, Division of Health Promotion Science, 1295 N. Martin Avenue, Campus PO Box 245209, Drachman Hall, Tucson, AZ 85724
Social Science and Medicine
University of Arizona