Aerosol deposition in the extrathoracic region.
Aerosol Sci Tech 2003 Aug; 37(8):659-671
The extrathoracic region, including the nasal and oral passages, pharynx, and larynx, is the entrance to the human respiratory tract and the first line of defense against inhaled air pollutants. Estimates of regional deposition in the thoracic region are based on data obtained with human volunteers, and that data showed great variability in the magnitude of deposition under similar experimental conditions. In the past decade, studies with physical casts and computational fluid dynamic simulation have improved upon the understanding of deposition mechanisms and have shown some association of aerosol deposition with airway geometry. This information has been analyzed to improve deposition equations, which incorporate characteristic airway dimensions to address intersubject variability of deposition during nasal breathing. Deposition in the nasal and oral airways is dominated by the inertial mechanism for particles >0.5 um and by the diffusion mechanism for particles <0.5 um. Deposition data from adult and child nasal airway casts with detailed geometric data can be expressed as En = 1-exp(-110 Stk), where the Stokes number is a function of the aerodynamic diameter (da ), flowrate (Q), and the characteristic nasal airway dimension, the minimum cross-sectional area (Amin). In vivo data for each human volunteer follow the equation when the appropriate value of Amin is used. For the diffusion deposition, in vivo deposition data for ultrafine particles and in vivo and cast data for radon progeny were used to derive the following deposition: En = 1-exp(-0:355S^4.14 f D^0.5Q^-0.28), where Sf is the normalized surface area in the turbinate region of the nasal airway, and D is the diffusion coefficient. The constant is not significantly different for inspiratory deposition than for expiratory deposition. By using the appropriate characteristic dimension, Sf , one can predict the variability of in vivo nasal deposition fairly well. Similar equations for impaction and diffusion deposition were obtained for deposition during oral breathing. However, the equations did not include airway dimensions for intersubject variability, because the data set did not have airway dimension measurements. Further studies with characteristic airway dimensions for oral deposition are needed. These equations could be used in lung deposition models to improve estimates of extrathoracic deposition and intersubject variability.
Aerosols; Aerosol-particles; Fibrous-dusts; Inhalants; Airborne-fibers; Air-sampling; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Asbestos-fibers; Asbestos-dust; Particulates; Analytical-processes; Models; Air-flow; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-rate; Nasal-cavity; Lungs; Lung-disease; Humans; Computer-models; Computers; Analytical-models
Yung Sung Cheng, LRRI, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108
Aerosol Science and Technology
Lovelace Biomedical & Environmental Research, Albuquerque, New Mexico