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Review of engineered nanomaterial manufacturing processes and associated exposures.
Virji MA; Stefaniak AB
Comprehensive materials processing. Bassim N, Hashmi MSJ, ed. Oxford, England: Elsevier Ltd., 2014 Jul; 8:103-125
This chapter reviews and summarizes the major manufacturing processes used to produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and identifies hazards and the potential for exposure to ENMS and other chemicals associated with these processes. The major process groups are vapor/aerosol, liquid, and solid phase syntheses. Specific processes within each classification are described as are factors that potentially affect worker exposure. A thorough understanding of processes used to manufacture ENMs and their production characteristics provides a foundation for understanding the microlevel factors that influence interaction between a source and a receptor. For examples, microlevel factors such as tasks of opening a reaction chamber or manually manipulating ENMs tend to be associated with the highest levels of nanoparticles in workplace atmospheres. Hence, understanding the influence of these factors permits targeted efforts to control exposures to ENMs. Exposures of concern during manufacturing may include the ENM product as well as chemical additives, catalysts, precursors, and by-products. These exposures may include the toxicological hazards from inhalation or dermal contact as well as physical hazards in manufacturing environments such as explosions and fire. An understanding of the generation and transport of the exposures of interest (ENMs and by-products) in a workplace will, in turn enable the development of efficient exposure monitoring strategies and the development of effective exposure control measures and the prevention of adverse health effects. Properly functioning engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation, fume hoods, and enclosures appear effective in reducing airborne particle concentrations.
Nanotechnology; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Chemical-composition; Vapors; Aerosols; Workers; Work-environment; Work-areas; Particulates; Author Keywords: Chemicals; Controls; Emissions; Engineered nanomaterials; Exposure; Liquid phase synthesis; Manufactured nanomaterial; Manufacturing; Materials; Nanofibers; Nanoparticles; Nanoplates; Process factors; Solid phase synthesis; Tasks; Vapor phase synthesis
Bassim N; Hashmi MSJ
Comprehensive materials processing