Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.
Lippert JF; Lacey SE; Jones RM
J Occup Environ Hyg 2014 Nov; 11(11):722-727
Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser generated air contaminants (LGAC), however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to healthcare staff. Single source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time weighted average concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits. Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates.
Exposure-levels; Monitors; Air-contamination; Lasers; Emission-sources; Models; Health-care-personnel; Medical-personnel;
Author Keywords: Medical laser; laser generated air contaminants; LGAC; emission rates; two-zone model
Julia F. Lippert, 2121 W. Taylor, Chicago, Illinois 60612
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
University of Illinois at Chicago