Is neuroimmune crosstalk important to neurotoxicology? Critical insight from animal and human studies.
Toxicologist 2014 Mar; 138(1):186
Convincing evidence of bidirectional communication between the immune system and the nervous system has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of neuroimmune interactions. Emerging evidence establishes a role for immune signaling in key neurodevelopmental events. Additional evidence suggests immune system contribution to neuronal responses in the form of neuroprotection and repair of tissue injury, as well as in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Simultaneously, neurons may actively participate in immune responses in the nervous system by signaling to resident and infiltrating immune cells. The net result of the neuroimmune crosstalk depends on the balance between protective and destructive signaling pathways. There is increasing consensus that exposure to neurotoxicants may tip this balance towards a more disruptive outcome and augment the risk and/or severity of disease. How the immune system can act as a mediator/modulator of neurotoxicity remains elusive. Understanding gained by investigation into neuroimmune interactions will guide improvement of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. This session will present evidence of neuroimmune perturbations in human studies and animal models of neurotoxicant exposure. Evidence from human studies will focus on immune alterations following developmental neurotoxicant exposure in children with documented neurological deficits and in a pediatric population with autism spectrum disorders. Supporting data from animal models will focus on peripheral immune alterations and neuroinflammation following developmental or adult nervous system insult.
Toxicology; Cell-function; Cellular-function; Cell-damage; Exposure-levels; Pathology; Humans; Men; Women; Biomarkers; Risk-factors; Nervous-system; Neurotoxicology; Immunology; Immune-system; Pathogenesis; Diseases; Neurotoxins; Animal-studies
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 53rd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 23-27, 2014, Phonex, Arizona