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Dispersion method for safety research on manufactured nanomaterials.
Wu W; Ichihara G; Suzuki Y; Izuoka K; Oikawa-Tada S; Chang J; Sakai K; Miyazawa K; Porter D; Castranova V; Kawaguchi M; Ichihara S
Ind Health 2014 Jan; 52(1):54-65
Nanomaterials tend to agglomerate in aqueous media, resulting in inaccurate safety assessment of the biological response to these substances. The present study searched for suitable dispersion methods for the preparation of nanomaterial suspensions. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles were dispersed in a biocompatible dispersion medium by direct probe-type sonicator and indirect cup-type sonicator. Size characterization was completed using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. A series of dispersion time and output power, as well as two different particle concentrations were tested. Microscopic contamination of metal titanium that broke away from the tip of the probe into the suspension was found. Size of agglomerated nanoparticles decreased with increase in sonication time or output power. Particle concentration did not show obvious effect on size distribution of Ti02 nanoparticles, while significant reduction of secondary diameter of ZnO was observed at higher concentration. A practicable protocol was then adopted and sizes of well-dispersed nanoparticles increased by less than 10% at 7 days after sonication. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were also well dispersed by the same protocol. The cup-type sonicator might be a useful alternative to the traditional bath-type sonicator of probe-type sonicator based on its effective energy delivery and assurance of suspension purity.
Nanotechnology; Aqueous-solutions; Dispersion; Analytical-methods; Zinc-compounds; Dioxides; Oxides; Analytical-instruments; Analytical-processes; Microscopic-analysis; Safety-research; Author Keywords: Nanomaterials; Nanoparticles; Carbon nanotubes; Safety research; Suspension; Dispersion; Sonication
Gaku Ichihara, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
13463-67-7; 1314-13-2; 7440-44-0
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