A high priority of the National Response Team (NRT) is the preparation of emergency responders and decision makers for planning and conducting effective response and recovery activities while maintaining high standards of responder safety and health. The Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance (ERHMS) NRT Technical Assistance Document (TAD) is designed to provide the response community with a comprehensive framework for collecting important elements of responder safety and health in an organized, systematic manner and to utilize this data to optimize the health and safety of emergency responders and recovery workers prior to, during, and after their response to man-made or natural incidents. It is also intended for use by emergency response planners developing local and regional response plans in the context of the U.S. National Response Framework, the National Incident Management System, and other federal and state guidance that has been issued in recent years. In an effort to provide a concise and practical overview of the ERHMS system for the supervisory personnel involved in emergency response planning and execution, this "Guide for Key Decision Makers" was written to serve as a companion to the complete technical assistance document. It provides a step by step summary of the components of the ERHMS system, its primary data requirements, primary recommendations, and key decision points, and it outlines the type of health and safety reports that the ERHMS system can provide to decision makers. To function optimally, the ERHMS system requires the support and involvement of senior response personnel. This companion piece will help supervisory personnel understand how they can facilitate the implementation of the ERHMS system, anticipate its safety and health data requirements, and utilize ERHMS recommendations to optimize the safety and health of emergency responders under their command.